FINAL PROJECT. Anti Abortion Activism – Pro-life organizations

Different ways of seeing the aspect of sexes,  about definition of parenthood and about human nature are all called into issue of abortion.  Abortion, therefore gives us a rate opportunity to examine closely a set of values that are almost never directly discussed. Because those values apply to spheres of life that are very private ( sex) or very diffuse (morality), most people never look at the patterns they from. For this reason the abortion debate has become something that illuminates our deepest, and sometimes our dearest, beliefs.  But if we can still find the organizations that’s fighting for life, for protecting life? If they have right to do this or if the topic is  so private that its shouldn’t be talking in public debate? Some people also say about anti- abortion terrorism- can we say that it’s really happening?

But what exactly are we talking about?  According dictionaries abortion (Latin abortus or abortio)  is intentional and premature termination of pregnancy as a result of external intervention , such as medical operations .  The result is the death of the embryo or fetus.

Making abortion is regulated by law . The legislation in this area is different from each other in different countries. Both abortion itself , as well as methods for introducing her to the legislation are the subject of numerous controversies.


Abortion in the world

According to the adopted in 1989 by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years (Article 1 ), and every child has the inherent right to life (Article 6).

In 2004, the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg (not made ​​by a majority)  ruled that ” the unborn child is not considered a ‘ person ‘ directly protected by Art. 2 of the Convention [ right to life ] , even if the unborn is no ‘ right ‘ to ‘ life ‘ to it implicitly limited by the rights and interests of the mother . “

In countries where abortion is legal on request , shall be permitted only in the early stages of pregnancy. After the first trimester except for specific exceptions, is generally regarded as a criminal offense .



What about Pro- life organizations?

Pro-life (literally, for life) organizations and social movements engaged in educational activities, educational and scientific serving defense of human life from conception to natural death. Grant aid, including families with many children, dysfunctional and single parents, try to also interact with the legislation on such issues as abortion, euthanasia, cloning or the use of the death penalty, although it was felt that the social are associated mainly with opposition to abortion. Pro-life movements are active in all the democratic countries of the world.

One of the most well-known activists Gianna Jessen, who survived despite attempts to perform an abortion on her.

The movement’s roots 70s , in 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court listed abortion as a constitutional right . Since then, many organizations have fought tooth and nail to defend life from the moment of conception. Pro-life can count on the support of the Catholic Church and American foundations . The money will help to mobilize people

Respect for life is a universal value shared by everyone who depends on what is the common good , it is not a value exclusive to religious people . Of course we are very pleased with the job that takes most religions , in particular the Catholic Church , Evangelical and Protestant , explains Paul Ginoux Defermon , a member of the French anti-abortion 30anscasuffit (literally, 30 years is enough ! ) , A group of various associations , having a total of over 100 000 members. Each European country has its own legislation, including regulations on abortion. For pro-life associations is not important to harmonize the law. Every country should have its own regulations banning or restricting abortion, together with the policy of supporting life, explains Ginoux Defermon

thesis that human life begins at conception ;

interpretation of international legal instruments ( guarantee – as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights or the Convention on the Rights of the Child – the right to life of every human being ) as well as relating to human fetuses ;

humanistic values ​​( an absolute respect for human life at every stage , proclaimed among others, by John Paul II , Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Mahatma Gandhi and Ernesto Cofiño ) ;

facts about the dangers of abortion on women’s health .


In the pro-life environments, there is a great diversity of ideological activists such as part allows the use of modern contraceptive methods and see in it a way to reduce the amount of unwanted pregnancies and hence abortions , while Catholic circles are against artificial methods of birth control in their place by promoting the natural family planning or sexual abstinence . Among the activists and supporters of the pro-life movement are people of different faiths as well as non-believers , therefore, some initiatives are more religious other, more secular in nature. Most organizations pro-life does not identify with any political , in some countries , however, operate anti-abortion activists, organizations representing a particular political option .

Activity movement in Poland

Since 2006, the pro-life movement organized in Warsaw March for Life and Family , which promotes pro-family attitudes and respect for the life of every person , from conception to natural death.

March 24 is celebrated in Poland National Day of Life. It is a celebration enacted by the Parliament in 2004 . This day is to encourage reflection on the responsibility to protect and build respect for life .

March 21 held its annual pilgrimage Polish defenders of life to Jasna Gora .

In June 2008, the notorious was the case of the fourteen girls from Lublin which activists pro – life tried to stop before the abortion. The procedure was performed after the intervention of the Minister of Health .

March 1, 2009 through the streets of Poznan passed the first March for Life . The march was organized by the youth gathered around Duszparsterstwa  Academickiego Initiative and the March for Life pro-life youth association – ” Students for Life” . The march was attended by over 1500 people.

5 April 2009 in Poznań II held a march for life.


Anti abortion terrorism?

Of all the forms of ” extremism of one case ” the most brutal terrorism is anti-abortion . Extreme fractions pro-life movement radically with the progressive liberalization of the West, the right to abortion and the early 90’s, decided to move to an open fight. Radical in the form of opposition to abortion was not a new phenomenon so far , but the cut-off date is the year 1993 , when the U.S. for the first time , was murdered performing an abortion doctor – Dr. David Gunn . Treating abortion as genocide , radical activists of the pro-life does not smell in fact kill those who they believe are responsible for them – especially doctors – gynecologists . Their determination well illustrated fragment messages published by one of the most extreme anti-abortion extremist group ” Ni moment longer ! All the options have been exhausted. Our Grim God , your Lord and Lord requires that the blood of whoever poured human blood , by man has been shed . I do not hate you, but for the love of those who kill , we are forced to raise arms against you . Our life for yours – a simple equation . ”

Terrorism is anti-abortion occurs primarily in the USA and Canada. Incidents against this background was also recorded in Australia. Radical opponents of abortion also tried to move its operations in the UK , but this has been unsuccessful after British authorities deported activist who came from the USA , which was to create a local structure of the movement.

In the U.S., radical opponents of abortion are often referred to collectively as ” Army of God” ) . However, there remain more a group of believers in the same ideas and acting more or less independently of individuals, but organized movement. Their ideologue , a kind of chaplain is pastor Michael Bray . He has published a book titled ” A Time to Kill ” , which justifies the biblical point of view of the need to kill those who perform abortions . Icon is moving while Paul Jennings Hill . This was a Presbyterian minister in 1994 murdered gynecologist John Britton and his bodyguard and wounded the wife of a doctor. Sentenced to death , was executed in 2003, members of the movement consider him henceforth as a martyr .

According to data provided by the National Abortion Federation , since 1977 in the U.S. and Canada radical opponents of abortion have made seven murders (victims are mainly doctors – gynecologists and abortion clinic workers ), 17 attempted murders , three kidnappings , 100 assaults with a caustic substance 41 bombings , 173 arsons , 89 attempted fire or bombing of 1374 intrusion , vandalism in 1213 . This involves them also from bombing during the Olympics in Atlanta in 1996 later became a popular method of fighting is sending letters to abortion clinics with white powder (ie theoretically, anthrax ) . Only in 2001 a man named Clayton Wagner sent them 550

Radical opponents of abortion in the United States lead a controversial website called the Nuremberg Files. It contains the data ( names, addresses , phone numbers ) doctors performing abortions.

The problem of anti-abortion terrorism in the U.S. is treated very seriously. Even in the late 90’s to combat this threat allocated more FBI agents than to monitor the activities of Al-Qaeda .

Incidents on the background of opposition to abortion were also registered in Australia. There was murdered by one person – a security guard at an abortion clinic


As a conclusion, we see that some extremists take the concept of abortion to a point that it looks like committing a genocide, but I think abortion can be left to be legal as sometimes there are circumstance and conditions that a woman has to do abortion, but considering health issues as first priority and other life conditions example poverty in a family or life hardship of a woman or family in general. Anti abortion organizations and Pro life organisations can in fact teach and spread word to the people who do abortion because of reason such as having unprotected sex and many youth who do not care of getting pregnant and do abortion after. This group of people are the one who should fall under the anti-abortion activists hand and be considered as murderers.


The Social Movements Reader, Jeff Goodwin and James M.Jasper

Priests for Life Offers $50,000 Reward for Clinic Shooters , Kevin Eckstrom

 Fatal abortion clinic bombing condemned by pro-life leaders , Art Toalston


Is The Arab Spring a triumph of democracy?

According to Moncef Marzuki, earlier as a human rights activist, now president of Tunisia, the Arab Spring is rather triumph of democracy. “The Arabs gave his own response to rapid extremism and degrading regimes that we have supported. It’s called democracy” – says Thomas Friedman, publicist of “The New York Times”.

The Arab Spring has led not only to the fact that dictators like Bashar al-Assad in Syria or Chalif family is hiding now throughout the region. It  also forced autocrats around the world to strengthen the exchange rate against its citizens. Russia adopted new rules for treason and teases NGOs working on human rights . It is worth to mention that since the Arab Spring rulers became nervous, their actions against mass movements has increased, says Arch Paddington, vice president of Freedom House for scientific research.

Even according to the former president of Poland – Lech Walesa, quick collapse of the regimes, as happened in Eastern Europe in 1989 after the fall of communism, will not be repeated in the Arab world. Three principles that have shaped the Western perception of the Arab Spring, proved to be wrong. First of it is the belief in the absolute unpopularity of the existing powers. It is also the assumption that the opposition represents the will of the nation’s majority, as well as the belief that no force will be able to stop the resistance movement.

According to Freedom House global level of freedom in 2012, continued to fall – by the seventh year in a row. It is a record of the long-term trend.

The demonstrators, who for weeks had occupied Tahrir Square in Cairo, felt disappointment or even cheated. 17 million Egyptian citizens illiterate who cannot even write or read the word “democracy”. The millions of unemployed and millions of earning a dollar per day, hoped to improve the condition of their life. Also their expectations proved futile.

How Possible is Virtual World?

My reflections of article “A Virtual World is Possible”.

The article raises some issues that were very important in the history of the Internet. I agree with the author, as many of them shaped its present shape. What’s more, I’m from a generation for whom everything was new. On the one hand it was a trap, which now has large consequences. Range of free Internet, being in contact via the Internet have given a great opportunity. On the other hand, proved to be a trap for those who do not fully know how to exploit that potential. Each of us knows the events of the mid-nineties.

The event was called the dot-com bubble or the dot-com boom. The idea was that the company overestimated their chances of occurrence on the Internet. This caused panic. In addition to this came many accounting scandals associated with the dotcoms artificially inflating their income. This shows that the use of the Internet without the basic knowledge bringing more risks than benefits.

Another important issue for me was the extent of information transmitted over the Internet. The author points out that there is no contradiction between the street and cyberspace. In the era of new media tools is a very important issue. In addition, the author of the article asks a very important question: How long can a movement grow and stay “virtual”?

I refer here to the recent events that cunning for almost the entire European Union. The idea was to introduce special restrictions to express freedom of speech on the Internet. Regulation on ACTA was heavily criticized, especially because the government wanted to introduce a secret by the public. Almost immediately, large-scale protests erupted in the cities of European countries. What’s more, the same is happening: protests take place under the eyes of the world media. People were able to come together, because it was about a common interest – the Internet was still remain a place where you can express your views. The ongoing protests for weeks finally led to the fact that the government has decided to step down. This shows that the Internet remains an important destination for many people who will fight for it to remain that way.

Social Media and Political Participation (Final Project)

With the proliferation of Internet technology in the world, especially in the social and communal areas , the use of this new technology led to political changes and the formation of new challenges. The online world on the Internet produced new concepts and has led to the discussion of them. There are ways to recognize the view of the online world as a public space for discussion, which simultaneously serve as a repressive apparatus of the mainstream media for the democratization of society. The formation of the social oppositions, in addition, the property of the media as a coordination apparatus for opposition movements and with the increase of the communication devices , approaches were brought to the amplification of the social opposition movements in the foreground. (Shaw, 2001) In particular, during the process of transformation of the Arab Spring, was the role of the new media, that the social networks used in social events by the opposition as a powerful instrument. In the period from the beginning of the uprisings in Egypt until the resignation Mubareks, the use of the internet and social media was a help as a function of communication and the organization of the Egyptian opposition, and the establishment of solidarity. Likewise, the use of social media is in the “Gezi“,  uprisings in Turkey in 2013, so large that it can not be ignored. For a better understanding, the function of social media in the “Gezi“,  uprisings we can examine the basis of a study by the University of New York. In the “Gezi” uprisings were the mainstream media, and the social media made by a censorship ineffective.  The challenging content of social media such as Facebook and Twitter indented by the insurgents and world wide to the top.

The results of the research are as follows ; According to a study by the New York University social media and political participation (SMAPP), was sent on Friday the 31 May 2013 at 16:00 clock within the next 24 hours over at least 2 million Twitter hashtag about  the protests. Even after midnight, more than 3,000 tweets were sent per minute. Approximately 90% of the country, of whom 50% from Istanbul. In the first week of the uprising almost 2 million people have been sent 15 million tweets. # DirenGeziParkı  (resistence “Gezi“ park) was with 3 million tweets the slogan of the issues of the day During the Tahrir uprisings in Egypt, the Tweet sent number is estimated at 1 million. Accordingly, in the “Gezi Park“  protests, the role of social media can not be denied.

The internet is very effective, it allows unlike traditional media, the simultaneous communication between multiple centers, the most important is that in the logic of mass communication changes have occurred. From this point of view, as mentioned above by Shaw, are social networks for different activist movements to provide shortcuts and alternative information, a potential tool.

Based on the definition of Noam Chomsky in his book “Rizanin İmalatı,” , we can better recognize what an important tool the alternative media (social media) are in relation to the conflict of the opposition and minority groups. Chomsky; “Democracy does not mean the participation of the people, but their consent. This situation is brought in so-called modern society or the democratic societies through media condition. What is violence in totalitarian companies , is in democratic societies the media. With the way to let the society make it gladly… the people have no say in the government.“ The mentioned media from Chomsy are the mainstream media. In view of the media and of economic relations, the role of the mainstream media plays in the consent of the quantities a major role, the media contents are under the supervision of the ruling class, as claimed Chomsky. (Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman: Rızanın İmalatı; Kitle Medyasının Ekonomi Politiği, 2006 BGST yayınları)

Based on Chomsky’s thesis that for economically independent lower classes, opposition and minority groups, regardless of their own conflicts, the meaning of an independent communication network and the area for new challenges (social media) is becoming increasingly important can be better to understand. The new communication technologies  were initially in the hands of a certain class. The internet and internet technologies were not as widespread at that time at the world as it is today

The class, which had control of the economy, as the time of the expectations of the Internet grew, in the late 1990s, the effects of the trade on the internet, on the economy were awaited exciting.

These expectations started with the Internet usage of the guerrillas 1994, in addition the protests in Seattle in 1999 show that the active use of the internet bring changes in the political life .(Cleaver, 1999)

In the following section we will analyse the Zapatista movement or rather the use of the internet o archieve theire aims. The origination of new social movements in the 90s,the spread of the Internet and the idea of using the Internet to create a global world, do not meet the expectations. The main peculiarity oft he different categories oft he new social movement is that in addition to  the working class, the minority with identity problems from different countries use the Internet too, as a battle area. (Nash, 2001: 85)

Social movements and İnternet in Zapatista

Alternatively, the Internet is a medium,that uses the news which are not to be found in the mainstream news or were discarded to create  tidings. In this way, a rapid organization could be creat. Enemy Player Enemy masses can spread their propaganda through the Internet. The weaker sections of society can express themselves better through that means of communication. Political problems can exercise pressure on the government because of  the rapid communication. One of the first and most important examples of such pressure, is the Zapatista example. To understand the fight of the people in Zapatista it is first necessary to take a look at its history . Nowadays, the popular movements are ineffective The Zapatista movement is one of the few movements that can be greater can be continued by preserving of results, and in comparison to similar movements,the Zapatista movement  has a large size and range. The Zapatista movement: Is one which arose before the Marcos years, the movement crystallized after a earnest, collective and spiritual quest and has self-organized. Markos presented in many of his speeches, the Zapatista movement with the words: “We are learning by  walk” In Mexico, in 1994, a not very well-known movement has begun to make themselves recognizable to the international community. Called the EZLN (Zapatista National Liberation Army) which is an armed organization, had announced to defend the rights of the people and to  act. The guerrilla movement emerged in the Mexican region called  Chiapas , which was formed by Mayan Indians. The movement had its name from Emiliano Zapata, who was in the years 1910-17 in the foreground of the Mexican Revolution.

Their seperated and famous slogan is “Ya basta” (in Kurdish movement “Edi Bese”) and its mean is “Enough is enough”. Their other main slogans are justice, freedom and democracy.

EZLN made communication with the rest of Mexico and the world a high priority in the beginning. They generally use the satellite technologies and cellular phones to communication between each other. Also they use the internet very effectively to find support for their movement and to make their voices heard. They generate international solidarity with famous people and organization thanks to using internet and other technologies. Before these digital technologies they generally used again communication devices like magazines, newspapers, radio and television. However these devices were effective in their rural area and this was not enough for the international support. That’s why after the beginning of the using internet effectively they cut the using of the other communication devices. Nowadays they are the famous activist group on the internet and they taka advantage of the internet in every sense.

The Zapatista idea is the use of “tactical media” to draw public attention to a political cause. Tactical media means using mass media to criticize the power and government. It is a new and modern activism style in media. It includes short time media campaigns. Zapatista movement has this kind of many campaigns like “Chiapas Media Project” against to Mexico state. You can fallow some internet activitis about Zapatista;

The Chiapas Media Project (CMP) was an award winning, bi- national partnerschip that provide video equipment and training enable marginalized indigenous communities in Southern Mexico to create their own media. It was began 1998. CMP instructors worked in close collabratıon with aoutonomus Zapatista communities.

 Education, health and agriculture of the Zapatistas

The often discussed in the left pane, called by us alternative education has also been implemented by the zapatistas. The alternative education in Chiapas is not really an alternative,but rather the formation itself. That’s what makes the Zapatistas so special and different, that their philosophy is to be found in any type in everyday life. Configuration of the school, curriculum, lesson instructions and layouts on education in almost every field as alternative / critical / democratic pedagogy seems to have benefited because of that discussion. The board of school, annual curriculum topics such as the creation of all members of local communities the teachers and especially the children decide at the meeting .And first the children will be asked:“What would you like to learn?“.

Even if a more student-oriented education is carried out, the Zapatistas have some idea of education.

In one of the Zapatista texts is the following statement:”The schools must be for children the place where the psyche of the collective world is mediated. We didnt take the education rather the learning as a basis because the interests, curiosity, and the learning phase and the – rhytm in every child is different. Thus each individual has to learn by his rhythm. ”

The Zapatista gives people a lot of value.The best proof is that the principles are recognized as the Constitution, even agree with the traitors, the right to health.The Zapatista community is comparable to a snail.The snail is actually the symbol of the Zapatistas that they use to describe themselves. They are slow, but persistently, progressing perfectly and have an organizing structure itself. With the understanding of ecological agriculture they have established cooperatives. Agriculture is organized according social needs. (Eylem Çağdaş:



Technologies which are used by society can not considered independently without the history and their social structure of this society. Technology is a unique feature, these features will be appropriately shaped to the needs of the individual groups. Internet technology is a place of alternative struggle, as long as it is so it will be used by opposition groups. The best example of this are the growing social networks.

This current development in communication technology are always indicated and labeled on social needs. Because of this reason social websites such as (Facebook, Tweeter, Instagram, viva hiba …) as an alternative media are including video application, texts, and more other functions… The using of smartphones increases every day. The use of communication media in cultural and political direction reinforces the view that social media is used as an alternative public sphere.

Despite some difficulties of social media, it carries in two aspects for the political opposition.The first aspect is that because by the spreading of the social Media,smaller groups ,that not represented in traditional media ,have the chance to take part on it. By the social networks they can bring their identity as well their status problems in the society for word. In this way, they can exert a pressure on the government and attract the world’s attention on themselves.In this way the censorships are repealed on the traditional media. Despite governmental censorship and surveillance it comes for the intensive use of social media at social events. Communication and organization can be implemented quickly.








7) UPSAT raporları, EZLN

8)Teknoloji ve kamusal alan tartışmaları çerçevesinde sosyal medya kullanımı

ve politik katılım makalesinden. (Cleaver, H. (1999) Computer-linked Social Movement and Global Threat to Capitalısm.

The Women’s Movements in India & The State (Final Project)

The women’s movement in India took off in the 1920s, building on the 19th century social reform movement. The women’s movement progressed during the period of high nationalism and the freedom struggle, both of which shaped its contours.

Women within state bodies and programmes, concerned academics and activists would like to take advantage of the State’s structural ambiguity and amorphousness, of the conflicting interests of the dominant groups within it and the rising conscousness regarding women’s oppression.

These often give women the possibility of the creation of some space fore their own issues and strategies. It also carries thestruggle against patriarchy into the State, where it is so insidiously installed and powerfully supported by its entire machinery. Many activists choose to selectively strategise, confront and cooperate acording to the issue.

-India Association of Women’s Studies,

The state and the Women’s movement in India

This quotation demonstrate the ambivalent and complex strategies of women with and against the state articulated by the contemporary women’s movement in India. I will explain this strategie in three different phases of the contemporary and show how the strategy has maintend in keeping the changing of postcolonial Indian state.

The first one, affiliated phase of the movement, primarily urban and rural students and some Left Gandhian parties, by reducing poverty in independent India. Women demanded land reform, minimum wages for agricultural work, and microcredit for self-employment from local bureaucracies.

In the second, autonomous phase, when issues of violence against women dominated the movement and the Indian state

Finally, sustainable development phase of the movement, as state policies focused on integrating India into the global economy, the resolut of increasing of povrety and marginalization of workers and poor peasants turned the movement to criticizing structural adjustment policies.

Facing the development of the state

The postcolonial Indian state defined itself as the major catalyst of changes, creating state institution to address issues of inequality. In addiction of initiating public sector projects to enable the economy to grow up, a package of land reform, integrated rural development, community development, and antipoverty programs formed the basis of a development state with accompanying bureaucratic at the state, district, block, and village levels, it has been supported by politicians, industrialists, technologists, and lavor leaders.

The women’s movement was a big challenge to the development plans to the state, which had abandoned the garanty self-sufficiency vision of Gandhi and worked to achieve Nehru’s vision of rapid industrialization and modernization.

Most of the affiliated women movement criticized how the development plan had forget about women and mobilized them to access state resources, firstly in the form of employment guarantee schemes (ENS), credits for cooperatives, and land reform efforts.

The Chhatra Yuva Sangharsh Vahini CYSV (Student and Youth Struggle Vehicle) that emerged in Bihar, one the poorest states in India, in 1975. It aimed to organize the antimjan (the lowest of the lowest), lok shaki (people’s power) against raj shakti (state power) (Kelkar and Gala 1990), composted of the new class of urban and rural students and political leaders disaffected by the ruling parties.

CYSV includes a number of full-time women activists who launched women’s issues in the movement, such as women’s rights to land and other productive resources, the exploitation of women by the largest landowner in the area if Bodh Gaya by a Hindu math (religious institution) as well as interpersonal relationships between men and women and the institution of marriage.

In response to protests all over the country, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a state of emergency in 1975 annouced several policies to address the worsening poverty of the rural “masses”. Three important policies were establish:

– The Land Ceiling Act put a limit on how much land an individual could own and mandated the redistribution of excess land to the rural poor.

– The newly nationalized banks provide interest-free loans to the urban poor to start small businesses.

– The EGS mandated that when fifty people approched the local state bureaucracy for work, the state was responsible for providing them employment at minimum wages.

In 1978, following this new policies, CYSV organized protest against the concentration of land by the math. A popular slogan in the demonstration was jo zamin ko boye jote, who zameen ka malik hoi (those who sow and plow the land are owners of land). Activist organized meeting in every village to discuss the state commitment to the poor and how they are sell the lands, and who they should be organize, act as a collectivity and work together. Many urban activists walk kilometers to reach all the villagers and ensure their participation in the movement. The movement faced resistance from the local bureaucrats, and well as the police brutality.They agree to give lands only in the name of the male head of the hose, widowed.Image

Some women peasants demanded that land be given to them as well as man. They argued that, because men often migrate to the urban areas to work, and the women work the land. They also argued, that the earnings or loan money would not be spent on drink or otherwise frittered away. They want to fight for the land on the name of man and women.

In 1981, the movement has continued to ask land for women to the state. Women have succeded in wining the joint titles, but land in the name of women alone is still not a norm.

Self-Employed Women’s Association SEWA, an association of unemployed and underemployed urban poor woman in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, have registered the informal workers as union members and sought government funding to set up the first bank for poor women in the country. The bank gives microcredit to poor women to start cooperatives and other jobs. The organisation is one of the few that includes both Hindu and Muslim members.


Social time-bomb violence against women

Militant women, form the middle-class activists discovred that, even if the movement’s explicit commitments to women, woment’s issues took a backseat to class issues in the large social justice movement. They discover a deterioration of the women status in all sectors since the independence. The most choking indicator was the sex ratio of the population; India was one of the only three countries in the world that count more men than women.


Towards Equality  activists, began to meet in small groups to discuss the report that report on the status of women in India that was prepared for the International Women’s Year Word Conference In Mexico City sponsored by the UN in 1974, by reading feminist literature, and to discuss about the relevance of western feminist literature to Indian realities.

In 1978 about fourty small groups all over the country met in Bombay to organize an autonomous movement for women and by women, and an active angagement was made with the state on issues of violence against women. This relationship with the state combine demonstrating and protesting the patriarchal nature in different levels to influence state legislation and policy. They were working with the state and against it at the sometime.

The first national compaing was ognazed in 1980, after the case of a girl who was raped in the police custody.

Four law professors from the University of Delhi came across the 1977 Supreme Court judgement in a rape case that had been juge in 1972. Two policemen had raped a fourteen tribal girl, while she was in custody. The Supreme Court acquitted the policemen because the there was no physical marks, as evidenced, and by the fact that she had a history of sexual activity.

Many groups around the nation were formed to respond to this case, includinng Saheli in New Delhi, Vimochana in Bangalore, Chingari in Ahmedabad. And the Forum Against Rape in Bombay. Many of those groups were informally structured, based on participatory decision-making and collectives. Women coming for the earlier affiliated movement phase, middle-class professional women, academics, as well as women from left parties. They come together to discuss the letter that the professors wrote to the Supreme Court calling for reopening the case as soon as possible.

On March 8, 1980, women’s groups marched in protest against the jugement in fifteen major cities in the country. The press the print and television media gave extensive coverage to the protests.

On March 17, the Supreme Court rejected the petitions; the women’s activites turn it to ask for legal reform.

To discuss those strategies, thirty) two groups over the country participated to the Forum Against Oppression Autonomous Women’s Movement in India. For three days, women’s discussed topics such as the rape campaign, the role of the state in women’s oppression, the autonomu of the women’s movement…

The majority of the discussion report in how a patriarchal state oppress women through its definition of women as wives and mothers, by excluding her from development programs. These women’s groups agreed that he patriarchal state reproduces women’s oppression, they also agreed that they have to work with the police, the courts, and other state bureaucracies to enable women in their struggle against violence and injustice in the Indian society.

Indian feminists worked from outside the system, using their access to the state commission and women working in bureaucraty, but had only limited influence, because they depend on the state to enforce their interests in the face of religious traditions, political leaders, and they have to maintain the support of organized religious groups.

Autonomus groups continue to grow and provide real services to women. Many groups still meeting every three years in national conference to talk about issues and plan action for the Idian women.  Since 1990, autonomous groups have become active in the international women’s movement, in the world conferences organized by the UN. As a result, activists can now use international agreements to hold the state accountable at home for women’s social and economic rights.

The Globalization

The liberalization of India economy began in the late 1980 to merge into global economy. Structural adjustment policies, mandated by the IMF, and Word Bank, resulted by an increasment of poverty and marginalization of the rural and urban poor, as well as the emergence of many new women’s movements to address survival issues.

Livelihood issues that combine economic and ecological isuses. The difference between this fase and the first one is that women’s activism is seen by the state as partners in its efforts, those groups are involved in implementing some of the policies not just accessing state resources. They have organized to make the political parties more responsive. Most groups believe in “enabling poor communities to gain access to state resources and in the process of bringing together communities and policy-makers, education and transforming both the state and women” (quoted in Purushothaman 1998: 334).

In 1991 elections, national women organizations them selfs and made a door to door campaign to sensitize women voters on the need to choose candidates based on what they would do for women. The activists are highlighting about factors as criminalization, corruption, and nepotism that keep the women out of the political system.


To pursuit the transformation of electoral politics, and the woman situation in India, the women’s movements are persevering in outlining an alternative politics. The National Alliance of Women’s Manifesto and Charter of Demands in 2009, for example, did several meetings and consultations at the grassroots level across the country involving women from various sectors, classes, occupations and backgrounds.

Having been denied social, economic and political rights over centuries they stand with other marginalized and excluded groups denied these rights especially women of Oppressed and Deprived Castes and Communities who represent half the population yet live below the poverty line, illiterate and exploited.

The women’s movements in India are working with state policies and at the same time challenging the state’s economic and politic, as India is turning away from domestic concerns to compete more effectively within the global economy.

The contemporary women’s movement in India has always been related to the state in different ways at different periods, refering to what the Indian state is acting. The Indian experience offers several insights for state and social movement relationships in general and feminisit state theories.


1999. “Women’s Movements in India” Raka Ray, U of Minnesota Press.
2002. “Social Movements, Identity, Culture, and the state” Oxford University Press.
2000. “Fields of Protest: Women’s Movements in India” Raka Ray, Zubaan

Legalizing homosexual marriage in France

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender  (LGBT) rights in France, have been seen as traditionally liberal and some of the most advanced in Europe and worldwide.

After granting same-sex couples domestic partnership benefits known as the civil solidarity, in 1999, the actual French president Francois Hollande signed a bill, In May 2013, that made France the 14th country in the world to open marriage to same-sex couples.

For many, these events did not come as a surprise. After all, France considers itself the cradle of human rights and civil liberties, where secularism is as important as the idea of universal suffrage, and where socialists have long had a stronghold.

Hundreds of thousands protest started in Paris and all France to protest gay marriage. This came at the tail end of an anti-gay rights movement that had grown into full force over the spring, and reach more than 1M protesters. While the Parliament squabbled over the footnotes of the bill, masses protested the idea of it. And as it became clear that the bill would pass, the opposition grew more ferocious: homophobic violence, illegal protests and scuffles with the police became a near daily occurrence.


The French LGBT community responded by organizing marches and rallies as well, often on the same day, and rapidly calling attention to threats or violence. When the gay marriage bill was finally passed this May, Green Member of Parliament Noël Mamère said, “This is not a historical day; France is merely catching up,” which summed up the general sentiment among supporters that it would inevitably pass sooner or later. 

When Hollande ran for president in 2012, it was one of his more prominent agenda items. The socialist candidate’s project of “mariage pour tous” (marriage for all) to give the homosexual the same status as heterosexual couples under adoption and inheritance laws. Hollande even promised to open artificial insemination to single women and lesbians, though he dropped this last point when it set off a whole new level of controversy.

While this spring did in fact reveal the dark, bigoted underbelly of French society, it also shed light on the strength of the democratic process: while an unlucky combination of timing and context can throw a wrench in the fight for gay rights, the democratic ideal of equal treatment under the law is difficult to deny.

Gulen movement and media (Final project)

Gulen movement is a civil society movement in Turkey and they have lots of international connections in the worldwide. Other names of this movement are Gulen congregation and “hizmet hareketi” or only “hizmet”. People generally use Gulen congregation to define this movement in Turkey. The cause of using this name is Islam and their connection with Islam. This movement has many schools, universities, educational institutions and some non-governmental organizations to aid organizations. Movement also has some foundations and associations to has dialogue between different religions and cultures. Also they have some hospitals, financial institutions and media organizations to tell their purposes and to find support from other people.


The supporters of this movement generally meet around Islamic thoughts of Fethullah Gülen. He is an old imam, preacher and writer. He wrote books more than fifty and lots of articles. His articles and sermons were published in many magazines and newspapers. According to some studies of some important magazines, he is in the between of most significant intellectual people in the worldwide. He is an Islamic thinker and he interprets lots of old sources about Islam according to present-day requirements. He generally follows the ideas of Said Nursi and he interprets his books which called Risale-i Nur. This movement occurred around these interpretations of Gülen and he is the opinion leader of this movement.


Many important and trained people like philosophers and social scientists support Gulen movement thanks to their ideas and practices about dialogue between religions and cultures. According to these people, Islam can be unifying element for the all humanity. However, also many important people against to these ideas and they criticize this movement and their purposes. Their main causes of these criticizes are that they see this movement as a dangerous for the secular nature of the Republic of Turkey. Also, another criticize is the economic and political power of this movement. They believe that movement and their supporter has very big power on state and government and they manage the country in Turkey. When we look at he current advances and events we can say that some of these criticizes are right but some of them are wrong and only personal ideas or the ideas of some specific groups.

Media using of Gulen movement

Media is the fourth biggest power after legislation, execution and judgment in a country. That’s why support of the media is very important for this kind of movements and organizations. Many civil society movements want to have this power of media to make their voices heard and to find support easily. Especially, the power of media is very significant in Turkey. Every politic and non-politic group has their own media. They have TV channels, radio channels, newspapers, magazines and internet sites for their own propaganda. Gulen movement also has their own media. These media outlets are very big and they have very big effect on people and country. Moreover, they can determine or change the agenda of the country sometimes.


Twenty years ago, there were not private TV channels in Turkey and using of the internet was not separated like nowadays. Radios and magazines and newspapers were only media devices for this kind of movements. However, Gulen movement had a difference from other movements. They used cassette technologies to separate their ideas and they were the best user of tape technology in Turkey. They separate easily sermons of Fethullah Gülen. He was very important preacher for Muslim people and for their supporter. Their supporters and other people could hear his voices, they could listen his ideas and they could feel his feelings thanks to this tape technology. This was very important way to find supporter and it had very big affect on people and their minds. Also, Muslim brothers use this technology in Egypt against to dictator and then against to coup government.


Nowadays, communication technologies and devices are more developed. That’s why using technologies change now and every group use these new technologies like visual technologies, internet and the most important feature of the internet; social media. Many different groups use social networking sites to share their ideas and to increase the number of their supporters. Gulen movement also uses these same ways. They can adapt themselves according to today’s condition. Now, they have many internet sites and they have can do publications. Also they have different publications in different countries with different languages. In this way, they can have international supports in the worldwide. In many different countries, universities prepare Gulen movement symposiums and seminars thanks to media using.

Media institutions of Gulen movement

Gulen movement has lots of media institutions nowadays. They have internet sites, TV channels, radios, magazines and newspapers in different areas. Television channels of movement are Samanyolu TV, STV Avrupa (STV Europe), STV Amerika (STV US), S Haber (S News), Mehtap TV, Ebru TV, Yumurcak TV, Küre TV, Hazar TV and Dünya TV. Newspapers of movement are Zaman and Today’s Zaman. Radio channels of movement are Burç FM, Samanyolu Haber, Radyo Cihan and Radyo Risale. The magazines of movement are Aksiyon, Sızıntı, Yeni Ümit, Yeni Bahar, Yağmur and Gonca. The internet sites of movement are and Movement also has a news agency and its name is Cihan Haber Ajansı (CHA).


TV channels

         Samanyolu TV (STV) was founded in 1993. Its content is mostly cultural and Islamic topics. Samanyolu Broadcast group has eight TV channels and three radio Channels in totally. TV channels are; Mehtap TV generally broadcast on cultural and religious topics. Samanyolu Haber TV broadcast usually on reporting and documentary topics. Ebru TV always broadcast with English language to introduce Islamic culture and and civilization for stranger people on international area in the worldwide. The content of Yumurcak TV is generaly for the kids and to teach them Islamic ethics. In addition to these, Samanyolu TV, Samanyolu Avrupa TV and Samanyolu US have a general content about general topics from Turkey and the area where they broadcast. Hazar TV broadcast in Azerbaijan and its content is generally family programs and religious programs. Dünya TV broadcast with Kurdish language to take support from Kurdish people.



Zaman daily newspaper is famous and biggest media organization in Turkey. It was founded in 1986. According to results of research of GENAR Research Company, Zaman newspaper was selected as most reliable newspaper in Turkey in 2009. Also, according to results of research of Konsensus Research Company, Zaman was selected as most unbiased newspaper in 2011 in Turkey. Moreover, Zaman is most printed newspaper in Turkey and its daily circulation is between 950.000 to 1.000.000. Zaman is published in 35 different countries, in 10 different languages with 2 different alphabets and it is printed in 10 different countries. Zaman also won many different awards about the topic of visual and design of newspaper. As well as it is the first newspaper which has internet site in Turkey ( That’s why it is the first Turkish newspaper on the internet. The contents of newspaper are economy, foreign news, television, culture and art, family-health, reviews and sports. Sometimes, they translate some important comments from foreign newspapers and magazines in their reviews pages.


Zaman newspaper has a daily English version; Today’s Zaman in Turkey. Today’s Zaman was published first time in 2007. It has cooperation with The Washington Post about content. Today’s Zaman is managed from same center with Zaman and it has its own personnel. It is also very big establishment in Turkey. Every Sunday, newspaper is published with the name of Sunday’s Zaman.


Radio Channels

Before the TV and internet, radio was biggest media device to propaganda for different groups and social movements. It could give information fast and easily. Gulen movement also uses this technology. Burç FM is the most famous radio channel of Gulen movement. Radio also has broadcast in North Africa, Middle East and Middle Asia thanks to satellite technologies in order to find support from different area for their movement. Samanyolu Haber Radyo has common broadcast with Samanyolu Haber TV. It was founded in 2007 in Istanbul. It has voluntary reporters and thanks to internet broadcast it has lots of audiences.


Another radio channel of Gulen movement is Radyo Cihan. It is one of Turkey’s first private radio channels. It was founded in 1993 in Istanbul and it was known by the name of Marmara FM. In 2011, it was sold Feza Gazetecilik and after this date Radyo Cihan is the biggest radio channel of Gulen movement. Their slogan is “Bu sesi herkes duymalı” (Everyone should hear this voice). The main feature of all this radio channels is that. You can hear the voice of Fethullah Gülen or the name of Gülen. Also all of these radio channels have a common purpose. This purpose is finding support for their movement and telling their main ideology for people.


Sızıntı is the first magazine of the Gulen movement and it was published in 1979. It was also first written press media device of movement. It is published monthly and its content is about literature and popular science. Monthly circulation of Sızıntı is in the near of 850.000 average. Religious topics are broadcasted generally in this magazine. The real meaning of the universe and the biological properties of human are general and main topics in this magazine. Also, the news about Fethullah Gülen and movement are broadcasted in magazine. Moreover according to some news Gülen wrote editorial of Sızıntı in February 2008.


The other famous magazine of Gulen movement is Aksiyon. Aksiyon is started to publish in 1994. It is a weekly news magazine and it came forward with journalism studies. It broadcasts every week new fifteen news file average. Its content is very wide and it almost broadcasts about every topic like politics, economy, culture and art, intelligence, foreign policy and social news. Aksiyon generally broadcasts news and comments together and this give an opportunity to analyze the news for people. It is only magazine in the area of weekly news in Turkey now. Its circulation is 56.000 averages in every week and it is very significant for a weekly magazine.


Yeni Bahar magazine was begun to publish in 2011. Its content is child, family, society, health, history and culture. it was a gift for subscribers of Zaman newspaper. Yeni Ümit is another magazine of Gulen movement. It was started to publish in 1988. It is published every three month. In its content, there are the topics about religious sciences and Islamic culture. It broadcasts about researches of Qur’an and it is published in 42 different countries. It has an important circulation. It is sold 98.000 averages in every three months. Its circulation is very big also in Middle East thanks to its contents.


Another magazine of Gulen movement is Yağmur. It was published first time in 1998 and it is published every two months. The content of magazine is language, culture and literature topics. Also, movement has another monthly magazine. Its name is Gonca. It is published in Izmir. The content of magazine is child and family and culture. It has small stories, jokes and riddles for children.

Internet sites

Gulen movement has two important internet sites. is the official internet site of Fethullah Gülen. He answers the questions of follower in this site. The site has very big mass follower. Another important internet side of movement is In this site shares the videos of conservation of Gülen weekly. These conversations are generally about cultural, political, religious and scientific topics. This site is actually an online magazine. It broadcasts the parts of the books of Gülen. These parts are generally about the agenda of Turkey and about the problems of other Muslim societies. That’s why it has many followers from overseas.


News agency

Gulen movement also has a news agency. Its name is Cihan Haber Ajansı (CHA). It was founded in 1994 in Istanbul. It has broadcasting twenty-four hours everyday on satellite and internet. According to their own information, they broadcast 450 writing news, 400 photographs, 180 news photos and 85 video news. They make news about politics, economy, sport, foreign news and art. They give these news for national television channels in Turkey and for the half of national newspapers in Turkey. Also they provide news for private companies. They have Arabic broadcasting since 1997. They have their bureaus in 31 different countries and they have their own reporters in 55 different countries.