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Student Movements

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The Euromaidan – Final Project

The EuroMaidan

On the night of 21 November 2013 with very large public protests demanding closer European integration have begun in Ukraine named as Euromaidan which is a wave of ongoing which is a demonstration and civil unrest. By 25 January 2014 the protests had been fueled by the perception of widespread, government corruption abuse of power, and violation of human rights in Ukraine.  It is been almost ten weeks since protests started, and it looks like they will go on. Thousands of Ukranians have gone to Kyiv’s Maidan Nezalezhnosti, also thousands protestors around the world are supporting them. Barricades were built by protestors with bags of snow and anything they could find.



An Association Agreement was initialed between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine On 30 March 2012. however, the EU leaders later stated that the agreement would not be ratified unless Ukraine addressed concerns over a “stark deterioration of democracy and the rule of law”, including the imprisonment of Yulia Tymoshenko and Yuriy Lutsenko in 2011 and 2012. Mid-August 2013 Russia changed its customs regulations on imports from Ukraine. On 21 November 2013 a Ukrainian government decree suspended preparations for signing of the association agreement. The reason given was that the previous months Ukraine had experienced “a drop in industrial production and our relations with The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries”   Comparision with Orange Revolution On 21th of November 2013 Ukrainians called to come to Maidan Nezalezhnosti to protest Yanukovych terminating trade agreement negotiations with the European Union by Ukrainian journalist Mustafa Nayeem with a Facebook post.



Nayem said that “Lets be serious, are u ready to be at Maidan this midnight, just write i will be there to this post, thousands will be organized at there. At this poind timing is important because Orange Revolution had started on 22 November 2004. Kaley Hanenkrat indicates that EuroMaidan and the Orange Revolution both had catalyzing events that brought people to the streets, an abandoned trade agreement and a falsified election, respectively, but both were and are indicative of deeper frustrations of Ukrainian citizens, many that are the same even nine years later. The Financial Times said the 2013 protests were “largely spontaneous, sparked by social media, and have caught Ukraine’s political opposition unprepared” compared to their well-organized predecessors.In an interview with opposition leader Yuriy Lutsenko, when asked if the current opposition was weaker than it was in 2004 he argued, that it was stronger because the stakes were higher, “I asked each [of the opposition leaders]: “Do you realize that this is not a protest? It is a revolution […] we have two roads – we go to prison or we win” Paul Robert Magocsi illustrated the effect of the Orange Revolution on Euromaidan, saying “Was the Orange Revolution a genuine revolution? Yes it was. And we see the effects today. The revolution wasn’t a revolution of the streets or a revolution of (political) elections, it was a revolution of the minds of people, in the sense that for the first time in a long time, Ukrainians, and people living in territorial Ukraine saw the opportunity to protest and change their situation. This was a profound change in the character of the population of the former Soviet Union.”Lviv-based historian Yaroslav Hrytsak also remarked on the generational shift, “This is a revolution of the generation that we call the contemporaries of Ukraine’s independence (who were born around the time of 1991); it is more similar to the Occupy Wall Street protests or those in Istanbul demonstrations (of this year). It’s a revolution of young people who are very educated, people who are active in social media, who are mobile and 90 percent of whom have university degrees, but who don’t have futures.”According to Hrytsak: “Young Ukrainians resemble young Italians, Czech, Poles, or Germans more than they resemble Ukrainians who are 50 and older. This generation has a stronger desire for European integration and fewer regional divides than their seniors”.In a Kyiv International Institute of Sociology poll taken in September, joining the European Union was mostly supported by young Ukrainians (49.8% of those aged 18 to 29), higher than the national average of 43.2% support.[A November 2013 poll by the same institute found the same result with 50.8% aged 18 to 29 wanting to join the European Union while 39.7% was the national average of support.An opinion poll by GfK conducted October 2–15 found that among respondents aged 16–29 with a position on integration, 73% favored signing an Association Agreement with the EU, while only 45% of those o ver the age of 45 favored Association. The lowest support for European integration was among people with incomplete secondary and higher education.




Goverment’s respond to protests is very aggresively, arrests have been occurred. Police forces uses pepper gas to protestors. Also you can see on photos.

Timeline of the protests across Ukraine

“A 24 November protest in Ivano-Frankivsk saw several thousand protestors gather at the regional administration building.No classes were held in the universities of western Ukrainian cities such as Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Uzhhorod. Protests also took place in other large Ukrainian cities: Kharkiv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Luhansk, Lviv, and Uzhhorod. The rally in Lviv in support of the integration of Ukraine into the EU was initiated by the students of local universities. This rally saw 25–30 thousand protesters gather on Prospect Svobody (Freedom Avenue) in Lviv. The organizers planned to continue this rally ’till the 3rd Eastern Partnership summit in Vilnius, Lithuania, on 28–29 November 2013. A rally in Simferopol, which drew around 300, saw nationalists and Crimean Tatars unite to support European integration; the protesters sang both the Ukrainian national anthem and the anthem of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen.

7 people were injured after 40 titushky (thugs) attacked a tent encampment in Dnipropetrovsk, which was ordered cleared by court order on 25 November.Officials estimated the number of attackers to be 10-15, and police did not intervene in the attacks. Similarly, police in Odessa ignored calls to stop the demolition of Euromaidan camps in the city by a group of 30, and instead removed all parties from the premises.50 police officers and men in plain clothes also drove out a Euromaidan protest in Chernihiv the same day.

On 25 November, in Odessa, 120 police raided and destroyed a tent encampment made by protesters at 5:20 in the morning. The police detained three of the protesters, including the leader of the Odessa branch of Democratic Alliance, Alexei Chorny. All three were beaten in the police vehicle and then taken to the Portofrankovsk Police Station without their arrival being recorded. The move came after the District Administrative Court hours earlier issued a ban restricting citizens’ right to peaceful assembly until New Year. The court ruling places a blanket ban on all demonstrations, the use of tents, sound equipment and vehicles until the end of the year.

On 26 November, a rally of 50 was held in Donetsk.

On 28 November, a rally was held in Yalta; university faculty who attended were pressured to resign by university officials.

On 29 November, Lviv protesters numbered some 20,000. Like in Kiev, they locked hands in a human chain, symbolically linking Ukraine to the European Union (organisers claimed that some 100 people even crossed the Ukrainian-Polish border to extend the chain to the European Union).

On 1 December, the largest rally outside of Kiev took place in Lviv by the statue of Taras Shevchenko, where over 50,t public figures and politicians were in attendance.An estimated 300 rallied in the eastern city of Donetsk d000 protesters attended. Mayor Andriy Sadovy, council chairman Peter Kolody, and prominenemanding that President Viktor Yanukovych and the government of Prime Minister Mykola Azarov resign.Meanwhile, in Kharkiv, thousands rallied with writer Serhiy Zhadan, during a speech, calling for revolution. The protest was peaceful.Protesters claimed at least 4,000 attended, with other sources saying 2,000. In Dnipropetrovsk, 1,000 gathered to protest the EU agreement suspension, show solidarity with those in Kiev, and demand the resignation of local and metropolitan officials. They later marched, shouting “Ukraine is Europe” and “Revolution”. EuroMaidan protests were also held in Simferopol (where 150-200 attended), and Odessa.

On 2 December, in an act of solidarity, Lviv Oblast declared a general strike in order to mobilize support for protests in Kiev,which was followed by the formal order of a general strike by the cities of Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk.

In Dnipropetrovsk on 3 December, a group of 300 protested in favor of European integration and demanded the resignation of local authorities, heads of local police units, and the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU).

On 7 December it was reported that police were prohibiting those from Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk from driving to Kiev.

Protests on 8 December saw record turnout in many Ukrainian cities, including several in eastern Ukraine.

On 9 December, a statue to Vladimir Lenin was destroyed in in the town of Kotovsk in Odessa Oblast.In Ternopil, Euromaidan organizers were prosecuted by authorities.

On 14 December, Euromaidan supporters in Kharkiv voiced their disapproval of authorities fencing off Freedom Square from the public by covering the metal fence in placards.They have since 5 December been the victims of theft and arson.A Euromaidan activist in Kharkiv was attacked by two men and stabbed twelve times. The assailants were unknown but activists told the Kharkiv-based civic organization Maidan that they believe the city’s mayor, Gennady Kernes, to be behind the attack.

On 22 December, 2,000 rallied in Dnipropetrovsk.

In late December, 500 marched in Donetsk. Due to the regime’s hegemony in the city, ‘500 marchers to assemble in Donetsk is the equivalent of 50,000 in Lviv or 500,000 in Kiev. On 5 January, marches in support of Euromaidan were held in Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, and Kharkiv; the latter three drawing several hundred and Donetsk only 100.

On 11 January, 150 activists met in Kharkiv for a general forum on uniting the nation-wide Euromaidan efforts. A church were some were meeting was stormed by over a dozenthugs, and others attacked meetings in a book store; smashing windows and deploying tear gas to stop the Maidan meetings from taking place.

On 22 January in Donetsk, two simultaneous rallies were held – one pro-Euromaidan and one pro-government. The pro-government rally attracted 600 attendees to about 100 from the Euromaidan side. Police reports claimed 5,000 attended to support the government, to only 60 from Euromaidan. In addition, approximately 150 titushky appeared and encircled the Euromaidan protesters with megaphones and began a conflict, burning wreaths and Svoboda Party flags, and shouted “down with fascists!”, but were separated by police.Meanwhile, Donetsk City Council pleaded with the government to take tougher measures against Euromaidan protesters in Kiev.Reports indicated a media blackout took place in Donetsk.

In Lviv on 22 January, amid the police shootings of protesters in the capital, military barracks were surrounded by protesters. Many of the protesters included mothers whose sons are serving in the military, and pleaded with them not to deploy to Kiev.

In Vinnytsia on 22 January thousands protesters blocked the main street of the city and the traffic. Also, they brought “democracy in coffin” to the city hall, as a present to Yanukovych.23 January Odessa city council member and Euromaidan activist Oleksandr Ostapenko’s car was bombed. The Mayor of Sumy threw his support behind the Euromaidan movement on 24 January, laying blame for the civil disorder in Kiev on the Party of Regions and Communists.

On 28 January about 500 Crimean Tatars attended a peaceful rally in support of Euromaidan in Simferopol.”


The EuroMaidan is an ongoing protests so it is early to conclude Euromaidan. Protests are still continuing.


Anti war movements (FİNAL PROJECT)

Being able to stop standing in the way of existing in the world, being able to remain strong through the victories of the war.This situation had contunied since centuries. As most of people had adopted this idea with the word “war” some people also was against this. People who want to take their land,borders, weak people, strong people, people want their freedom always tried to achieve this wih wars.

Activisims against wars is a social event. It started within the same decisions öf society against carrying guns. Activists work together with society and for protests in order to stop this chaos and war which is also against the governments.

Some examples for the protests against war are listed below

Protests in the USA against them war in Iraq,  the activists act to protect the rights of the civilians and children who has no guilt in the events happening in the Iraq. One other issue that activist stand for the damage of the guns using in the war and Burning oil Wells to the nature

The antiwar movement includes a wide circle besides peace movements like not being dependent on a central guidance. This mass circle showed a different acts like aggregate protests to sitting protests, people shield to hacts of computer Monsters, concerts to signature gathering,  Greenpeace acts to conscientious objection to Oscar protests, hanging posters on individual houses to people wearing pins on the streets .This antiwar movement had made a purpose to create collective conscience against people murdered in Iraq,emphasize them and create a world view on humanity.

People among different geography, region, religion, culture and society tried to Relax with their conscience by telling the things they are not happy with.  Rome with 2 million, Madrid with 2 million,  London with 1,5 million,  Newyork with 500 thousand, Berlin with 500 thousand,  Sydney again 500 thousand Paris 250thousand had joined this act and on the 15 February 2003, Saturday they created a big event among 70 country, 300 city,  about 10 million people. (Akınay,  2003:98)

Even if antiwarism is not been well cared,  a survey conducted in 2010 showed that, antiwar believes are more than war believers.

Vietnam war

An example to this can be showed as an actual against Vietnam war acts. Anti Vietnam War acts start in 1964. Before this date, there are some little groups consists of A few peace groups. The aim of these acts are to show there is an similar organization against Vietnam war. With this reason, it is seen that different groups gather in one idea.  This is just seen in the 60’s peace movements. Sometimes there can be conflict between different peace groups either. Antiwar groups are all have different purposes and methods. Capitalist and revolutionist groups are trying to demolish capitalism however women rights groups defend woman rights and freedom, but even if they all have different purposes they all come together with the idea of antiwar.

    If you are in the government begins to spread opposition to war in 1968. The most important anti-war movement is opposition within the army. Thousands of U.S. soldiers will refuse to obey orders. Hundreds of officers of the United States were killed by their own soldiers. In 1960,the civil rights movement in America anti-war movement across the country would be a great public support. From the public following the bloody conflicts of the American people begin to protest their country. Everywhere in the country at slaughter were shown on television in a detailed manner.

Containing all of the political, racial, and cultural issues of the 1960s anti-war movement will cause huge divisions in society.

Vietnam war movement against the university campuses of the middle-class slums of labor unions, government agencies, civil rights movement supporters, feminists, conscientious objectors, vietnam veterans, their religious pacifists, democrats, republicans and the clergy are so many different walks of individuals and groups have provided extensive support .

As an example of these countries define themselves as hawks and doves, two groups were formed. Hawks defending thepresidentss policies were cut. Pigeons Americans were opposed to the war. The war between the government of South Vietnam and the Vietcong in the American civil war is a need not to be mixtures were supported.Pigeons intense aerial bombardments, American troops killing civilians and chemical gas against the use of them.1960’s and 70s in the anti-war movement on a survey conducted in the men hawk support there women is higher than was observed.After the Tet offensive in January 1968, 56 percent of the American people for Atmaci, 28 percent supported the pigeons pigeons after this event has increased the proportion of support. In addition, the power of religion or religious belief of hawk or dove, but support has emerged that there is no effect. On the other hand, most of the provinces in the south of the war in American growth, whether it be of support was roaring.(Hodgson, 336)

During the war is a wide variety of tactics used by opponents of the war. Legal shown, base, organizing, lobbying in Congress, support candidates in elections pro-peace, civil disobedience, to go to the army, conscientious, self-burning, not to tax them as examples

These actions are the most popular to tax decentralization. In 1966, the government obtained from telephone tax money allocated to explain how the war goes. Thereupon pacifists (peacemakers) want to be the payment of this tax. In 1966, war tax resistance (war-tax resistance) organization is established.

Join the movement against the Vietnam War, the U.S. is the most successful movements.

 One another war; south africa border war. This call for an end to the military campaign in the anti-war movement was performed. committee was formed and the South African War resisters. remaining in this war there were many anti-war people.2005 2006 during the American against Iran a possible military intervention can be found on was talked.war anti-activists, journalists and academics to the world as announced in america Iranian nuclear bomb to produce world threat as showing a possible battle ground was prepearing told.

these reports and escalation between Iran and western states,created citizens organization.In America and in England have organized campaigns for protecting military intervention against Iran


”Antimilitarism is the contrast of war in general and not specific wars. Whatever the reason or justification for the policy as a method of warfare negative. Justified or unjustified war than he refuses to categorize.This is not due to rejection class sexual cultural interests received moral and political reasons for Antimilitarism. However, conscientious rejection and the message also is a requirement of the anti-war actions. Freedom to question whether the security community Antimilitarism Does freedom of the individual as an individual responds to the question.”

Conscientious Rejection

Conscientious objection is a compulsory status that, political, religious or moral values ​​based on the persons refusal to do military service . . Conscientious objectors to military service because of their faith in all circumstances, but those objections are refusnik, while the military who do not fulfill orders that do not fit to their conscience. They can die for the defense of Israel, but they are going to military occupation.

One of the reasons for rejection, even if the enemy is to kill people find moral. the worlds first known conscientious objectors Maximilian there of 21 Years in North Africa when he was summoned to a young Roman army were executed for stubbornly refusing to go.

for the first time on 5 September 1798 with the start of conscription in France began to organize .1. Shortly after World War WRI (War Resisters’ International – Council of War Resisters’ International was founded after the second world war and the cold war era and forth rapidly.

In western Europe in past 10 years in many countries compulsory military was demolished.  .Belgium (1995), The Netherlands (1996), France (2002), Spain (2003), Hungary and the Czech Republic (2004), Italy (1 January 2005) in other countries alternative public services are implemented. In Russia the situation is somewhat different in Russia the number of deserters higher than the number of open conscientious objectors.

Mothers of soldiers who deserted compared to the estimated annual number of 40,000 finds. No unified refusal movement in Russia. Soldiers’ Mothers Movement – supporting refusers of the most powerful movements violations of human rights support to soldiers leaving their units and polling / focus on draft evasion. This support is often not an anti-militarist perspective, life safety and health of their sons related feeds on fear. However, the Soldiers’ Mothers movement in the war in Chechnya often strongly opposes.

Conscientious objection in Turkey, it is not recognized as a right in law and on conscientious objectors conscientious objectors to a special arrangement is made, all other military-age men with Turkish nationals are treated in the same way. Conscientious objection in Turkey, despite the decision taken after the penalty call and recruitment for military service due to the continuation of the order or refusal to renounce objectors are fulfilling his military service or civil disobedience have continued. Denial or who insist on living as fugitives or recruitment despite the tasks are thrown into prison for refusing military.

Although a member of the council of europe turkey conscientious objection is one of the rare countries that refuse to recognize as eligible. Despite explaining that conscientious objection in Turkey are 220 persons.


asker doğmayanlar (pınar öğünç)

( kavramlar sözlüğü 2 ,özgür üniversite yayınları)

C.Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi küresel yeni sosyal hareketler ve savaş karşıtlığı- Ünal şentürk

Kurdish nationalism & New media

The Kurdish Question represents a longstanding battle between the state’s authority and cultural identity group demands in Turkey. The Republic of Turkey was created as a territorial-based form of identity, based on the modern understanding of citizenship.  However, as a result of the collapse of the multiethnic and multireligious Ottoman Empire, the state has struggled to build a cohesive territory-based form of identity and citizenship.


European colonial powers attempted to divide Turkey, and to create an independent de facto Kurdish state in the Middle East. However, powerful cultural groups across the Middle East such as Arabs, Persian and the Turks, placed the Kurds in a powerless position, therefore the Kurds have no friends but mountains. 

Kurdish nationalism is the political movement that holds that the Kurdish people are a nation deserving of a sovereign homeland, Kurdistan, partitioned out of the territories where Kurdish people form a majority. Currently, these territories lie in northern Irak, Iran, Turkey and small parts of northern and northeastern Syria.

Kurdish nationalist movements have long been suppressed by Turkey, Iran and the Arab-majority states of Iraq and Syria, all of whom fear loss of territory to a potential, independent Kurdistan. Since the 1970s, Iraqi Kurds have pursued the goal of greater autonomy and even outright independence against the Baat Partyregimes, which responded with brutal repression. In the 1980s, After the invation of Irak in 2003, Iraqi Kurdistan became an autonomous region, enjoying a great measure of self-governance but stopping short of full independence.

‘New media technologies’ have facilitated and advanced Kurdish unification and nationalism and will continue to do so by reducing barriers such as time and space. The Internet has connected the Kurdish diaspora to the land and people still occupying the Kurdish territories. This argument is built on the idea that people can share their common sense of identity and feelings of attachment without governmental censorship.

Kurdish use Internet for ‘long-distance nationalism’, r for esearchers, e-mail and social networking sites, for organizing protests, meetings, and nationalist projects. Moreover, the Internet give the Kurds with a forum wherein they can discuss issues and subjects that are otherwise banned. This is particularly true of the Kurds from Turkey who use the Internet to disseminate banned publications and to make them available to the Kurds in Turkey. Facebook, for example, is popular for creating groups that discuss the Kurdish language, culture, and history. Twitter has also become a popular destination for expressing Kurdish nationalism. For example, Twitter was used to organize a campaign to highlight the oppression of Kurds in Turkey and to garner attention and support for the Kurds.


FINAL PROJECT. Anti Abortion Activism – Pro-life organizations

Different ways of seeing the aspect of sexes,  about definition of parenthood and about human nature are all called into issue of abortion.  Abortion, therefore gives us a rate opportunity to examine closely a set of values that are almost never directly discussed. Because those values apply to spheres of life that are very private ( sex) or very diffuse (morality), most people never look at the patterns they from. For this reason the abortion debate has become something that illuminates our deepest, and sometimes our dearest, beliefs.  But if we can still find the organizations that’s fighting for life, for protecting life? If they have right to do this or if the topic is  so private that its shouldn’t be talking in public debate? Some people also say about anti- abortion terrorism- can we say that it’s really happening?

But what exactly are we talking about?  According dictionaries abortion (Latin abortus or abortio)  is intentional and premature termination of pregnancy as a result of external intervention , such as medical operations .  The result is the death of the embryo or fetus.

Making abortion is regulated by law . The legislation in this area is different from each other in different countries. Both abortion itself , as well as methods for introducing her to the legislation are the subject of numerous controversies.


Abortion in the world

According to the adopted in 1989 by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years (Article 1 ), and every child has the inherent right to life (Article 6).

In 2004, the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg (not made ​​by a majority)  ruled that ” the unborn child is not considered a ‘ person ‘ directly protected by Art. 2 of the Convention [ right to life ] , even if the unborn is no ‘ right ‘ to ‘ life ‘ to it implicitly limited by the rights and interests of the mother . “

In countries where abortion is legal on request , shall be permitted only in the early stages of pregnancy. After the first trimester except for specific exceptions, is generally regarded as a criminal offense .



What about Pro- life organizations?

Pro-life (literally, for life) organizations and social movements engaged in educational activities, educational and scientific serving defense of human life from conception to natural death. Grant aid, including families with many children, dysfunctional and single parents, try to also interact with the legislation on such issues as abortion, euthanasia, cloning or the use of the death penalty, although it was felt that the social are associated mainly with opposition to abortion. Pro-life movements are active in all the democratic countries of the world.

One of the most well-known activists Gianna Jessen, who survived despite attempts to perform an abortion on her.

The movement’s roots 70s , in 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court listed abortion as a constitutional right . Since then, many organizations have fought tooth and nail to defend life from the moment of conception. Pro-life can count on the support of the Catholic Church and American foundations . The money will help to mobilize people

Respect for life is a universal value shared by everyone who depends on what is the common good , it is not a value exclusive to religious people . Of course we are very pleased with the job that takes most religions , in particular the Catholic Church , Evangelical and Protestant , explains Paul Ginoux Defermon , a member of the French anti-abortion 30anscasuffit (literally, 30 years is enough ! ) , A group of various associations , having a total of over 100 000 members. Each European country has its own legislation, including regulations on abortion. For pro-life associations is not important to harmonize the law. Every country should have its own regulations banning or restricting abortion, together with the policy of supporting life, explains Ginoux Defermon

thesis that human life begins at conception ;

interpretation of international legal instruments ( guarantee – as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights or the Convention on the Rights of the Child – the right to life of every human being ) as well as relating to human fetuses ;

humanistic values ​​( an absolute respect for human life at every stage , proclaimed among others, by John Paul II , Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Mahatma Gandhi and Ernesto Cofiño ) ;

facts about the dangers of abortion on women’s health .


In the pro-life environments, there is a great diversity of ideological activists such as part allows the use of modern contraceptive methods and see in it a way to reduce the amount of unwanted pregnancies and hence abortions , while Catholic circles are against artificial methods of birth control in their place by promoting the natural family planning or sexual abstinence . Among the activists and supporters of the pro-life movement are people of different faiths as well as non-believers , therefore, some initiatives are more religious other, more secular in nature. Most organizations pro-life does not identify with any political , in some countries , however, operate anti-abortion activists, organizations representing a particular political option .

Activity movement in Poland

Since 2006, the pro-life movement organized in Warsaw March for Life and Family , which promotes pro-family attitudes and respect for the life of every person , from conception to natural death.

March 24 is celebrated in Poland National Day of Life. It is a celebration enacted by the Parliament in 2004 . This day is to encourage reflection on the responsibility to protect and build respect for life .

March 21 held its annual pilgrimage Polish defenders of life to Jasna Gora .

In June 2008, the notorious was the case of the fourteen girls from Lublin which activists pro – life tried to stop before the abortion. The procedure was performed after the intervention of the Minister of Health .

March 1, 2009 through the streets of Poznan passed the first March for Life . The march was organized by the youth gathered around Duszparsterstwa  Academickiego Initiative and the March for Life pro-life youth association – ” Students for Life” . The march was attended by over 1500 people.

5 April 2009 in Poznań II held a march for life.


Anti abortion terrorism?

Of all the forms of ” extremism of one case ” the most brutal terrorism is anti-abortion . Extreme fractions pro-life movement radically with the progressive liberalization of the West, the right to abortion and the early 90’s, decided to move to an open fight. Radical in the form of opposition to abortion was not a new phenomenon so far , but the cut-off date is the year 1993 , when the U.S. for the first time , was murdered performing an abortion doctor – Dr. David Gunn . Treating abortion as genocide , radical activists of the pro-life does not smell in fact kill those who they believe are responsible for them – especially doctors – gynecologists . Their determination well illustrated fragment messages published by one of the most extreme anti-abortion extremist group ” Ni moment longer ! All the options have been exhausted. Our Grim God , your Lord and Lord requires that the blood of whoever poured human blood , by man has been shed . I do not hate you, but for the love of those who kill , we are forced to raise arms against you . Our life for yours – a simple equation . ”

Terrorism is anti-abortion occurs primarily in the USA and Canada. Incidents against this background was also recorded in Australia. Radical opponents of abortion also tried to move its operations in the UK , but this has been unsuccessful after British authorities deported activist who came from the USA , which was to create a local structure of the movement.

In the U.S., radical opponents of abortion are often referred to collectively as ” Army of God” ) . However, there remain more a group of believers in the same ideas and acting more or less independently of individuals, but organized movement. Their ideologue , a kind of chaplain is pastor Michael Bray . He has published a book titled ” A Time to Kill ” , which justifies the biblical point of view of the need to kill those who perform abortions . Icon is moving while Paul Jennings Hill . This was a Presbyterian minister in 1994 murdered gynecologist John Britton and his bodyguard and wounded the wife of a doctor. Sentenced to death , was executed in 2003, members of the movement consider him henceforth as a martyr .

According to data provided by the National Abortion Federation , since 1977 in the U.S. and Canada radical opponents of abortion have made seven murders (victims are mainly doctors – gynecologists and abortion clinic workers ), 17 attempted murders , three kidnappings , 100 assaults with a caustic substance 41 bombings , 173 arsons , 89 attempted fire or bombing of 1374 intrusion , vandalism in 1213 . This involves them also from bombing during the Olympics in Atlanta in 1996 later became a popular method of fighting is sending letters to abortion clinics with white powder (ie theoretically, anthrax ) . Only in 2001 a man named Clayton Wagner sent them 550

Radical opponents of abortion in the United States lead a controversial website called the Nuremberg Files. It contains the data ( names, addresses , phone numbers ) doctors performing abortions.

The problem of anti-abortion terrorism in the U.S. is treated very seriously. Even in the late 90’s to combat this threat allocated more FBI agents than to monitor the activities of Al-Qaeda .

Incidents on the background of opposition to abortion were also registered in Australia. There was murdered by one person – a security guard at an abortion clinic


As a conclusion, we see that some extremists take the concept of abortion to a point that it looks like committing a genocide, but I think abortion can be left to be legal as sometimes there are circumstance and conditions that a woman has to do abortion, but considering health issues as first priority and other life conditions example poverty in a family or life hardship of a woman or family in general. Anti abortion organizations and Pro life organisations can in fact teach and spread word to the people who do abortion because of reason such as having unprotected sex and many youth who do not care of getting pregnant and do abortion after. This group of people are the one who should fall under the anti-abortion activists hand and be considered as murderers.


The Social Movements Reader, Jeff Goodwin and James M.Jasper

Priests for Life Offers $50,000 Reward for Clinic Shooters , Kevin Eckstrom

 Fatal abortion clinic bombing condemned by pro-life leaders , Art Toalston

Social Media and Political Participation (Final Project)

With the proliferation of Internet technology in the world, especially in the social and communal areas , the use of this new technology led to political changes and the formation of new challenges. The online world on the Internet produced new concepts and has led to the discussion of them. There are ways to recognize the view of the online world as a public space for discussion, which simultaneously serve as a repressive apparatus of the mainstream media for the democratization of society. The formation of the social oppositions, in addition, the property of the media as a coordination apparatus for opposition movements and with the increase of the communication devices , approaches were brought to the amplification of the social opposition movements in the foreground. (Shaw, 2001) In particular, during the process of transformation of the Arab Spring, was the role of the new media, that the social networks used in social events by the opposition as a powerful instrument. In the period from the beginning of the uprisings in Egypt until the resignation Mubareks, the use of the internet and social media was a help as a function of communication and the organization of the Egyptian opposition, and the establishment of solidarity. Likewise, the use of social media is in the “Gezi“,  uprisings in Turkey in 2013, so large that it can not be ignored. For a better understanding, the function of social media in the “Gezi“,  uprisings we can examine the basis of a study by the University of New York. In the “Gezi” uprisings were the mainstream media, and the social media made by a censorship ineffective.  The challenging content of social media such as Facebook and Twitter indented by the insurgents and world wide to the top.

The results of the research are as follows ; According to a study by the New York University social media and political participation (SMAPP), was sent on Friday the 31 May 2013 at 16:00 clock within the next 24 hours over at least 2 million Twitter hashtag about  the protests. Even after midnight, more than 3,000 tweets were sent per minute. Approximately 90% of the country, of whom 50% from Istanbul. In the first week of the uprising almost 2 million people have been sent 15 million tweets. # DirenGeziParkı  (resistence “Gezi“ park) was with 3 million tweets the slogan of the issues of the day During the Tahrir uprisings in Egypt, the Tweet sent number is estimated at 1 million. Accordingly, in the “Gezi Park“  protests, the role of social media can not be denied.

The internet is very effective, it allows unlike traditional media, the simultaneous communication between multiple centers, the most important is that in the logic of mass communication changes have occurred. From this point of view, as mentioned above by Shaw, are social networks for different activist movements to provide shortcuts and alternative information, a potential tool.

Based on the definition of Noam Chomsky in his book “Rizanin İmalatı,” , we can better recognize what an important tool the alternative media (social media) are in relation to the conflict of the opposition and minority groups. Chomsky; “Democracy does not mean the participation of the people, but their consent. This situation is brought in so-called modern society or the democratic societies through media condition. What is violence in totalitarian companies , is in democratic societies the media. With the way to let the society make it gladly… the people have no say in the government.“ The mentioned media from Chomsy are the mainstream media. In view of the media and of economic relations, the role of the mainstream media plays in the consent of the quantities a major role, the media contents are under the supervision of the ruling class, as claimed Chomsky. (Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman: Rızanın İmalatı; Kitle Medyasının Ekonomi Politiği, 2006 BGST yayınları)

Based on Chomsky’s thesis that for economically independent lower classes, opposition and minority groups, regardless of their own conflicts, the meaning of an independent communication network and the area for new challenges (social media) is becoming increasingly important can be better to understand. The new communication technologies  were initially in the hands of a certain class. The internet and internet technologies were not as widespread at that time at the world as it is today

The class, which had control of the economy, as the time of the expectations of the Internet grew, in the late 1990s, the effects of the trade on the internet, on the economy were awaited exciting.

These expectations started with the Internet usage of the guerrillas 1994, in addition the protests in Seattle in 1999 show that the active use of the internet bring changes in the political life .(Cleaver, 1999)

In the following section we will analyse the Zapatista movement or rather the use of the internet o archieve theire aims. The origination of new social movements in the 90s,the spread of the Internet and the idea of using the Internet to create a global world, do not meet the expectations. The main peculiarity oft he different categories oft he new social movement is that in addition to  the working class, the minority with identity problems from different countries use the Internet too, as a battle area. (Nash, 2001: 85)

Social movements and İnternet in Zapatista

Alternatively, the Internet is a medium,that uses the news which are not to be found in the mainstream news or were discarded to create  tidings. In this way, a rapid organization could be creat. Enemy Player Enemy masses can spread their propaganda through the Internet. The weaker sections of society can express themselves better through that means of communication. Political problems can exercise pressure on the government because of  the rapid communication. One of the first and most important examples of such pressure, is the Zapatista example. To understand the fight of the people in Zapatista it is first necessary to take a look at its history . Nowadays, the popular movements are ineffective The Zapatista movement is one of the few movements that can be greater can be continued by preserving of results, and in comparison to similar movements,the Zapatista movement  has a large size and range. The Zapatista movement: Is one which arose before the Marcos years, the movement crystallized after a earnest, collective and spiritual quest and has self-organized. Markos presented in many of his speeches, the Zapatista movement with the words: “We are learning by  walk” In Mexico, in 1994, a not very well-known movement has begun to make themselves recognizable to the international community. Called the EZLN (Zapatista National Liberation Army) which is an armed organization, had announced to defend the rights of the people and to  act. The guerrilla movement emerged in the Mexican region called  Chiapas , which was formed by Mayan Indians. The movement had its name from Emiliano Zapata, who was in the years 1910-17 in the foreground of the Mexican Revolution.

Their seperated and famous slogan is “Ya basta” (in Kurdish movement “Edi Bese”) and its mean is “Enough is enough”. Their other main slogans are justice, freedom and democracy.

EZLN made communication with the rest of Mexico and the world a high priority in the beginning. They generally use the satellite technologies and cellular phones to communication between each other. Also they use the internet very effectively to find support for their movement and to make their voices heard. They generate international solidarity with famous people and organization thanks to using internet and other technologies. Before these digital technologies they generally used again communication devices like magazines, newspapers, radio and television. However these devices were effective in their rural area and this was not enough for the international support. That’s why after the beginning of the using internet effectively they cut the using of the other communication devices. Nowadays they are the famous activist group on the internet and they taka advantage of the internet in every sense.

The Zapatista idea is the use of “tactical media” to draw public attention to a political cause. Tactical media means using mass media to criticize the power and government. It is a new and modern activism style in media. It includes short time media campaigns. Zapatista movement has this kind of many campaigns like “Chiapas Media Project” against to Mexico state. You can fallow some internet activitis about Zapatista;

The Chiapas Media Project (CMP) was an award winning, bi- national partnerschip that provide video equipment and training enable marginalized indigenous communities in Southern Mexico to create their own media. It was began 1998. CMP instructors worked in close collabratıon with aoutonomus Zapatista communities.

 Education, health and agriculture of the Zapatistas

The often discussed in the left pane, called by us alternative education has also been implemented by the zapatistas. The alternative education in Chiapas is not really an alternative,but rather the formation itself. That’s what makes the Zapatistas so special and different, that their philosophy is to be found in any type in everyday life. Configuration of the school, curriculum, lesson instructions and layouts on education in almost every field as alternative / critical / democratic pedagogy seems to have benefited because of that discussion. The board of school, annual curriculum topics such as the creation of all members of local communities the teachers and especially the children decide at the meeting .And first the children will be asked:“What would you like to learn?“.

Even if a more student-oriented education is carried out, the Zapatistas have some idea of education.

In one of the Zapatista texts is the following statement:”The schools must be for children the place where the psyche of the collective world is mediated. We didnt take the education rather the learning as a basis because the interests, curiosity, and the learning phase and the – rhytm in every child is different. Thus each individual has to learn by his rhythm. ”

The Zapatista gives people a lot of value.The best proof is that the principles are recognized as the Constitution, even agree with the traitors, the right to health.The Zapatista community is comparable to a snail.The snail is actually the symbol of the Zapatistas that they use to describe themselves. They are slow, but persistently, progressing perfectly and have an organizing structure itself. With the understanding of ecological agriculture they have established cooperatives. Agriculture is organized according social needs. (Eylem Çağdaş:



Technologies which are used by society can not considered independently without the history and their social structure of this society. Technology is a unique feature, these features will be appropriately shaped to the needs of the individual groups. Internet technology is a place of alternative struggle, as long as it is so it will be used by opposition groups. The best example of this are the growing social networks.

This current development in communication technology are always indicated and labeled on social needs. Because of this reason social websites such as (Facebook, Tweeter, Instagram, viva hiba …) as an alternative media are including video application, texts, and more other functions… The using of smartphones increases every day. The use of communication media in cultural and political direction reinforces the view that social media is used as an alternative public sphere.

Despite some difficulties of social media, it carries in two aspects for the political opposition.The first aspect is that because by the spreading of the social Media,smaller groups ,that not represented in traditional media ,have the chance to take part on it. By the social networks they can bring their identity as well their status problems in the society for word. In this way, they can exert a pressure on the government and attract the world’s attention on themselves.In this way the censorships are repealed on the traditional media. Despite governmental censorship and surveillance it comes for the intensive use of social media at social events. Communication and organization can be implemented quickly.








7) UPSAT raporları, EZLN

8)Teknoloji ve kamusal alan tartışmaları çerçevesinde sosyal medya kullanımı

ve politik katılım makalesinden. (Cleaver, H. (1999) Computer-linked Social Movement and Global Threat to Capitalısm.