Category Archives: Reflection 2

An Overview Of The Arap Spring

That revolution started on 18 December 2010 and it includes all Arab countries. This uprising began in Tunisia and then it spread to another Arap countries. Those are countries: Egypt, Yemen, Libya, Bahrain, Syria, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Sudan, Mauritania, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, Western Sahara and in the Palestinian Authority.

Image: http://tunisusa.com/blog/tag/arab-spring/

Image: http://tunisusa.com/blog/tag/arab-spring/

What does mean Arap Spring?

The Arab Spring is a term that refers to the revolutionary wave of protests that have spread through many North African and Middle Eastern countries. (The Arap awakening: Revolution spinning in the wind,Jul 14th 2011 | Cairo | From the print edition)

There were lots of motivations for this uprasing. Such as unemployment, government control, censorship and there was no freedom of speech. The dictators of all Arab countries were unique power. They were regulating and controlling their countires strictly.

Image: http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/tag/egypt/
Image:http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/tag/egypt/

What was the role of technology for Arab Spring?

Even the control of the goverments was strictly, and people couldn’t express themselves freely, the use of social media was effectively. Twitter, Facebook and Blogs were using a lot by protesters and activits. During the Arab Spring and before the uprising people were using the social media to organize, to meet and to communicate with each other. People defended their personal rights against to the government. That’s why the social media and the role of the technology were very important.

References:

Arab Spring Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring

The Arab Awakening: http://www.economist.com/node/18958237

1-Image: http://tunisusa.com/blog/tag/arab-spring/

2-Image: http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/tag/egypt/

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Is The Arab Spring a triumph of democracy?

According to Moncef Marzuki, earlier as a human rights activist, now president of Tunisia, the Arab Spring is rather triumph of democracy. “The Arabs gave his own response to rapid extremism and degrading regimes that we have supported. It’s called democracy” – says Thomas Friedman, publicist of “The New York Times”.

The Arab Spring has led not only to the fact that dictators like Bashar al-Assad in Syria or Chalif family is hiding now throughout the region. It  also forced autocrats around the world to strengthen the exchange rate against its citizens. Russia adopted new rules for treason and teases NGOs working on human rights . It is worth to mention that since the Arab Spring rulers became nervous, their actions against mass movements has increased, says Arch Paddington, vice president of Freedom House for scientific research.

Even according to the former president of Poland – Lech Walesa, quick collapse of the regimes, as happened in Eastern Europe in 1989 after the fall of communism, will not be repeated in the Arab world. Three principles that have shaped the Western perception of the Arab Spring, proved to be wrong. First of it is the belief in the absolute unpopularity of the existing powers. It is also the assumption that the opposition represents the will of the nation’s majority, as well as the belief that no force will be able to stop the resistance movement.

According to Freedom House global level of freedom in 2012, continued to fall – by the seventh year in a row. It is a record of the long-term trend.

The demonstrators, who for weeks had occupied Tahrir Square in Cairo, felt disappointment or even cheated. 17 million Egyptian citizens illiterate who cannot even write or read the word “democracy”. The millions of unemployed and millions of earning a dollar per day, hoped to improve the condition of their life. Also their expectations proved futile.

A Virtual World

Radio, television, communication channels and diversifies the internet, we also began to change the nature of communication. 21 The first decade of the century, the Internet began to gain our lives and now we can not do without a net was a period. The fact we are in the era of information and technology, virtual reality begins to leave the place must have been a period. In the production of knowledge, sharing and re-production of the web-based technology began to be widely used social media during this period, almost as a social sharing space creates its own reality. In the most general sense of social media , people’s ideas , opinions, experiences, and perspectives to share and use to communicate with each other their “online platforms” as defined. The key concepts of “social ” and “media ” concepts. The Internet, a message to the recipient due to the transport function of the media is very powerful , no doubt . However, people over the internet exists as an information sharing and communication of their existence , they will point their socialization clear that the issue should be questioned . Social media described as the means of communication that provide people with opportunities and freedom can not be ignored , of course . However, the fact that these social media tools and social life itself whether , just create a virtual reality dimension that needs to be well understood . Think of a person ; able to meet their basic needs through the internet . Video speaks to everyone , deposit money account and send money to other accounts , doing all your shopping from the internet , school lessons etc from the internet is . You can extend this list as you want . In a nutshell I want to say , a display can regulate the lives of all people in a world wonder , is still ” a social entity ” asdefined ? We were in the “unavoidable in the world of virtuality ” people should avoid direct contact and experience many things from the experience of computer and mobile phone screens are . Our lives easier in respect of the parties to an appeal may not be one, but the fact that social media people “asocial” We need to see that it is a party. We do not talk to people, they are projected onto the screen by talking with, people do not see, we see by their projected onto the screen. If we do not understand the difference, then you really socialize with social media, we are led to believe. Whereas that is happening, “a virtual socialization” and the truth and nothing but a distorted reflection. Both visual and verbal sense of how we want to be the person on the other side of the screen so it is possible to build a virtual reality virtual worlds. This is actually not only a basic understanding of social media is a problematic basis of modern means of communication. Social media people are able to interact with people in different geographies or faster are said to be organized and this and there are so many useful and meaningful dimension of social media tools. However, they should not forget that a function. How millions of people the world over mainly through social media “socializing” that fall under the label of a virtual reality need to look at. This particular young people in the realm of virtual reality, virtual relationships into real life as you pass their time with a firm step assignments are living in distress. Social media tools, virtual reality is different from discussion and more “emotional” sizes are also available. Today, 50 billion dollars for Facebook, Twitter and in the case are valued at $ 10 billion. And many other internet-based social networking site available and installed on their total money when there is a market. Of course, almost all of them, which is the motherland of social media in the United States. The Internet, which brings a new dimension of global capitalism and the new, which summarizes very well today should be seen as an expression. The last ten years, the man can not do without Google, will not now becoming the social media-less. This motif of people addicted to the internet, contact with real people no longer even start building via computer or mobile phone is becoming a consumer. Defining the digital capitalism is largely an accurate characterization of the main engine of this web. Social media, including the internet of people becoming addicted to prepare the ground in all internet-based communication tools, directly or indirectly, in these digital tools of capitalism. So a teenager sitting by the computer for communication purposes, a portion of the time before the later part of his life across the screen “spending” begins. This dependence of the effect of social influence how over the years will bring forth time will tell.  As a result, social media, because it is in essence a virtual reality environment to socialize as people, but virtual. Be aware of this issue. Consciously aware of it using social media as a user object in position before turning into a consumer presence in the virtual world can sustain. This form allows social media. However, unfortunately, in Turkey and in the world generally the internet, in particular social media addict deprived of millions of people in a way that consciousness exists in virtual reality themselves in an effort to make it live. The main problem of the people in real life friendships in the virtual world or play over the internet instead of putting the events in the game to gain real life. An aspect of social media to communicate with people migrating to other aspects of the people by making them dependent on computer or mobile phone is to substantially.

Arab Spring

The year 2011 was exceptional; it’s inspired by the Arab Spring.
Aspirations for freedom, democracy and well being…

It’s began the 17 December 2010, when Mohamed Bouazizi a Tunisian street vendor who  set himself on fire, in protest of the confiscation of his wares and the harassment and humiliation that he reported was inflicted on him by a municipal official and her aides. His act became a catalyst for the Tunisian Revolution and the wider Arab Spring inciting demonstrations and riots throughout Tunisia in protest of social and political issues in the country.

The Arab revolutions have affected many countries, from Morocco to Bahrain. 
The protesters in Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, Libya and Yemen express new forms of protest.
A remarkable movement in 2010 and particularly, how they used mobile phones, Internet, videos, blogs and Web 2.0. They projects in the web new actors and new forms of expression, especially via social networks.

Indeed , Twitter, Facebook , Youtube, etc. . , Allow sharing information in real time, organizing demonstration and motivating people to participate.

These new tools of communication have offered these people a new self-organizing space for making their revolutions and allowed people to overcome their fear, which the classic media would never allow.

All national and international observers agree that the quick success of the protests in Arabs country would not have been possible without Information and communication technologies (ICT) and Web 2.0 (social networks , blogs, etc..).Facebook, Youtube and Twitter have played an important role in the Tunisian revolution, and also in the Libyan and Syrian Egyptian revolution. They even called the Tunisian revolutions “digital” or “2.0”. Thanks to this, the politicians now take them seriously. Indeed, them words, and images became so powerful, we can finally know what is happening, because traditional forms of communication such as the press and television have often not showed the economic, political and social reality of the country. These countries have lived for many years under a single power that has destroyed the freedom of speech, has taken all the economy in their advantage.

Arab spring and social media

In The Middle East, some protests began against governments and dictators and these protests separate very fast in every country on Middle East and some North African countries. People gave a common name all of these protests. That name was “Arab Spring” In 18 December 2010, a Tunisian guy, Muhammed Buazizi, burned him selves on the street and these protests started firstly in Tunis. The main reasons of these protests were more freedom, civil liberties, economical problems and another important causes. After these protests, lots of dictators and governments put down, some others leave from management, and some killed. Also during the protests, lots of people dead.

During these protest, people also used social media device to make their voices heard and to tell themselves for the other people in the worldwide. Social media devices firstly had different function and people generally used them to be social and to have fun in the beginning. However than people discovered that they can mold public opinion and they can mobilize the masses thanks to social media devices. After people understand these features of social media devices, using of these devices and purpose of their using was chanced. People began to check social media to learn what happen in these countries because other news agencies could not have more information than people who live in there. Blog writers were very important to take direct and fast news from these events.

Moreover, we can say that sometimes these social media devices replace the mainstream media in this kind of events. Blogs and forum pages were very important during these protests and events. News agencies sometimes used some blogs as a source. Already lots of TV channels and newspapers could not go to the source of events. During these protests, there was a civil war in these countries. That’s why blog writers and social media users were more important than ever. The beginning of these protests were also thanks to social media devices. People could communicate each other and they could organize other people to begin these protests through social media devices. Blog writers were like the general secretary of protesters. They tried to tell their problems and their targets to people  in the international area.

In conclusion, social media devices and their users affect these protests and these protests have very important effect on the other protests in the other countries. The types of protests were change after these events. Now, people firstly begin to protest on social media and they try to find supporter, than they organize the others, and after that they begin to very effective physical protests on the streets and squares.

Resources:

http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arap_Baharı

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring

http://middleeast.about.com/od/humanrightsdemocracy/a/Definition-Of-The-Arab-Spring.htm

http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Arab_Spring

Communicative Capitalism

We might express this disconnect between engaged criticism and national strategy in terms of a distinction between politics asthe circulation of content and politics as official policy. On the one hand there is media chatter of various kinds – from television talking heads, radio shock jocks, and the gamut of print media to websites with RSS (Real Simple Syndication) feeds, blogs, e-mail lists and the proliferating versions of instant text messaging. In this dimension, politicians, governments and activists struggle for visibility, currency and, in the now quaint term from the dot.com years, mindshare. On the other hand are institutional politics, the day-to-day activities of bureaucracies, lawmakers, judges and the apparatuses of the police and national security states. These components of the political system seem to run independently of the politics that circulates as content.

Communicative capitalism designates that form of late capitalism in which values heralded as central to democracy take material form in networked communications technologies (cf. Dean 2002a; 2002b). Ideals of access, inclusion, discussion and participation come to be realized in and through expansions, intensifi cations and interconnections of global telecommunications. But instead of leading to more equitable distributions of wealth and infl uence, instead of enabling the emergence of a richer variety in modes of living and practices of freedom, the deluge of screens and spectacles undermines political opportunity and effi cacy for most of the world’s peoples.

Anti-capitalism and anti-globalization movements in Argentina

19y20diciembre2001enplazademayofa

Photo Credit: argentina.indymedia.org

The beginning of 2000’s, a serious economical crisis appeared in Argentina. Argentina’s economy was dominated by World Bank and International Money Fon. Because of globalisation and neo-liberal transformation, economical crises was felt deeply. Argentina’s natioanal money, named Pezo was loosing its exchange value day by day. Poority were rising, middle class lost their opportunies. Thousands of people’s life standarts changed as from middle class to lower class.

Neo-liberal transformation and globalisation were causing many social-economical problems like an unemployment. Twenty five percent of workers lost their job in short time-period. Many social systems, such as educational system and health system came to stopline. All of them transformed from socialisation to privatisaition. A massive uprising came after that problematic issues.

In December 2001, thousand of people gathering on Buenos Aires streets. Protestors were totally against politicians of those days and their policies. Protestor’s main slogan was “All of them (all politicians) must go!”. Protests transformed as a big revolt. The Governement resigned because of the massive demonstrations. So it can be said that, protestors achieved goal.

Protesters’ main demands were “job for everybody”. They were against deregulated capitalism and they anticipated new political-economical system. Massive resistance in Argentine, includes many people from different classes, groups and political perspectives. Protestors consist of middle class, lower class, workers, houswifes, unemployees, youth, retirets.

argentina[1]

Photo Credit: libcom.org

In interview, published on democracynow.org, Professor Adamovsky from Buenos Aires University, said that “It was special moment of solidarity between lower and middle classes against neo-liberal measures”.

Unfortunately, national media covered news about uprising, from power’ perspective. Media tried to represent protestors as a terrorist or vandalist but they were not. State used hard police violance during the uprising.

Effects

The other important effect of revolt that some companies permanently socialized by workers during the uprising. New Government tried to make a reform on many issues, especially political-economical system. The new government’s first radical step was rejection of external debt. IMF reconstructed Argentina’s debt plan. New Government accept to pay only thirty five cent for each one dollar of external debt. Deregulated capitalism policies were stopped by Government who defined themselves as a social democrat. With the new economy policy, unemployment rate declined, economical growth rised. Of course, whole system did not changed but, crucially important reforms were made. New organizational forms created by protestors during the massive protests.

Sources:

theguardian.com

haber.sol.org.tr

democracynow.org

thetake.org

marxist.com