Category Archives: Reflections

An Overview Of The Arap Spring

That revolution started on 18 December 2010 and it includes all Arab countries. This uprising began in Tunisia and then it spread to another Arap countries. Those are countries: Egypt, Yemen, Libya, Bahrain, Syria, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Sudan, Mauritania, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, Western Sahara and in the Palestinian Authority.

Image: http://tunisusa.com/blog/tag/arab-spring/

Image: http://tunisusa.com/blog/tag/arab-spring/

What does mean Arap Spring?

The Arab Spring is a term that refers to the revolutionary wave of protests that have spread through many North African and Middle Eastern countries. (The Arap awakening: Revolution spinning in the wind,Jul 14th 2011 | Cairo | From the print edition)

There were lots of motivations for this uprasing. Such as unemployment, government control, censorship and there was no freedom of speech. The dictators of all Arab countries were unique power. They were regulating and controlling their countires strictly.

Image: http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/tag/egypt/
Image:http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/tag/egypt/

What was the role of technology for Arab Spring?

Even the control of the goverments was strictly, and people couldn’t express themselves freely, the use of social media was effectively. Twitter, Facebook and Blogs were using a lot by protesters and activits. During the Arab Spring and before the uprising people were using the social media to organize, to meet and to communicate with each other. People defended their personal rights against to the government. That’s why the social media and the role of the technology were very important.

References:

Arab Spring Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring

The Arab Awakening: http://www.economist.com/node/18958237

1-Image: http://tunisusa.com/blog/tag/arab-spring/

2-Image: http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/tag/egypt/

The Gender Revolution

Speaking about the opportunities and LGBT movements it is worth to mention a generation of gender. It even became one of the most popular slogan on the Internet (gender was elected Word of the Year 2013 competition conducted by scientists from the Institute of Polish Language).

Image of “gender” concepts relating to identity and gender roles in society. This subject is controversial as gay marriage and the fight for LGBT rights. Generally speaking, gender is the study of gender, only understood in terms of cultural, not biological. Gender is not the only culprit of social change. Gender is related to discriminatory situations. What is more it is difficult to separate from the concept of gender and feminism. It is normal that there are social movements or currents of thoughts which introduce changes in the perception of certain concepts in science. I think that is a natural consequence of the struggle for gender equality and the fight for the legalization of same-sex marriages.

I know some people media and politicians who claim that “gender” harms society because it is hitting into a traditional model of family. I encourage you to look at the issue from a historical perspective. This is how it looks today, the family is so different from how it looked in the sixteenth century, the seventeenth or even the nineteenth that present standards would be greatly scandalized. Changes are subject to a number of factors, not just gender theory and feminism. Blaming any study or discipline of gender for breaking habits is a misunderstanding. Then there are demographic, economic, ability to move, or very many cultural trends that have changed our behavior and habits.

Blaming the Church about gender study is a misunderstanding.

Currently in Poland it takes a huge struggle for “gender” in church. This is not about the concept of these studies. They exchanged a lot of threats and changes, which may lead the next generation. One polish bishop asked what is the Church’s problem about “gender” responds that this ideology comes from the wrong understanding of freedom. It is hard to be surprised that some do not like it when they hear that some roles, behaviors and even attributes that their society has created for men and women, suddenly begin to be called into question.

But history has shown that what was impossible a few decades ago, today it is widely accepted.

Is The Arab Spring a triumph of democracy?

According to Moncef Marzuki, earlier as a human rights activist, now president of Tunisia, the Arab Spring is rather triumph of democracy. “The Arabs gave his own response to rapid extremism and degrading regimes that we have supported. It’s called democracy” – says Thomas Friedman, publicist of “The New York Times”.

The Arab Spring has led not only to the fact that dictators like Bashar al-Assad in Syria or Chalif family is hiding now throughout the region. It  also forced autocrats around the world to strengthen the exchange rate against its citizens. Russia adopted new rules for treason and teases NGOs working on human rights . It is worth to mention that since the Arab Spring rulers became nervous, their actions against mass movements has increased, says Arch Paddington, vice president of Freedom House for scientific research.

Even according to the former president of Poland – Lech Walesa, quick collapse of the regimes, as happened in Eastern Europe in 1989 after the fall of communism, will not be repeated in the Arab world. Three principles that have shaped the Western perception of the Arab Spring, proved to be wrong. First of it is the belief in the absolute unpopularity of the existing powers. It is also the assumption that the opposition represents the will of the nation’s majority, as well as the belief that no force will be able to stop the resistance movement.

According to Freedom House global level of freedom in 2012, continued to fall – by the seventh year in a row. It is a record of the long-term trend.

The demonstrators, who for weeks had occupied Tahrir Square in Cairo, felt disappointment or even cheated. 17 million Egyptian citizens illiterate who cannot even write or read the word “democracy”. The millions of unemployed and millions of earning a dollar per day, hoped to improve the condition of their life. Also their expectations proved futile.

How Possible is Virtual World?

My reflections of article “A Virtual World is Possible”.

http://geertlovink.org/texts/a-virtual-world-is-possible/

The article raises some issues that were very important in the history of the Internet. I agree with the author, as many of them shaped its present shape. What’s more, I’m from a generation for whom everything was new. On the one hand it was a trap, which now has large consequences. Range of free Internet, being in contact via the Internet have given a great opportunity. On the other hand, proved to be a trap for those who do not fully know how to exploit that potential. Each of us knows the events of the mid-nineties.

The event was called the dot-com bubble or the dot-com boom. The idea was that the company overestimated their chances of occurrence on the Internet. This caused panic. In addition to this came many accounting scandals associated with the dotcoms artificially inflating their income. This shows that the use of the Internet without the basic knowledge bringing more risks than benefits.

Another important issue for me was the extent of information transmitted over the Internet. The author points out that there is no contradiction between the street and cyberspace. In the era of new media tools is a very important issue. In addition, the author of the article asks a very important question: How long can a movement grow and stay “virtual”?

I refer here to the recent events that cunning for almost the entire European Union. The idea was to introduce special restrictions to express freedom of speech on the Internet. Regulation on ACTA was heavily criticized, especially because the government wanted to introduce a secret by the public. Almost immediately, large-scale protests erupted in the cities of European countries. What’s more, the same is happening: protests take place under the eyes of the world media. People were able to come together, because it was about a common interest – the Internet was still remain a place where you can express your views. The ongoing protests for weeks finally led to the fact that the government has decided to step down. This shows that the Internet remains an important destination for many people who will fight for it to remain that way.

Gulen movement and media (Final project)

Gulen movement is a civil society movement in Turkey and they have lots of international connections in the worldwide. Other names of this movement are Gulen congregation and “hizmet hareketi” or only “hizmet”. People generally use Gulen congregation to define this movement in Turkey. The cause of using this name is Islam and their connection with Islam. This movement has many schools, universities, educational institutions and some non-governmental organizations to aid organizations. Movement also has some foundations and associations to has dialogue between different religions and cultures. Also they have some hospitals, financial institutions and media organizations to tell their purposes and to find support from other people.

 

The supporters of this movement generally meet around Islamic thoughts of Fethullah Gülen. He is an old imam, preacher and writer. He wrote books more than fifty and lots of articles. His articles and sermons were published in many magazines and newspapers. According to some studies of some important magazines, he is in the between of most significant intellectual people in the worldwide. He is an Islamic thinker and he interprets lots of old sources about Islam according to present-day requirements. He generally follows the ideas of Said Nursi and he interprets his books which called Risale-i Nur. This movement occurred around these interpretations of Gülen and he is the opinion leader of this movement.

 

Many important and trained people like philosophers and social scientists support Gulen movement thanks to their ideas and practices about dialogue between religions and cultures. According to these people, Islam can be unifying element for the all humanity. However, also many important people against to these ideas and they criticize this movement and their purposes. Their main causes of these criticizes are that they see this movement as a dangerous for the secular nature of the Republic of Turkey. Also, another criticize is the economic and political power of this movement. They believe that movement and their supporter has very big power on state and government and they manage the country in Turkey. When we look at he current advances and events we can say that some of these criticizes are right but some of them are wrong and only personal ideas or the ideas of some specific groups.

Media using of Gulen movement

Media is the fourth biggest power after legislation, execution and judgment in a country. That’s why support of the media is very important for this kind of movements and organizations. Many civil society movements want to have this power of media to make their voices heard and to find support easily. Especially, the power of media is very significant in Turkey. Every politic and non-politic group has their own media. They have TV channels, radio channels, newspapers, magazines and internet sites for their own propaganda. Gulen movement also has their own media. These media outlets are very big and they have very big effect on people and country. Moreover, they can determine or change the agenda of the country sometimes.

 

Twenty years ago, there were not private TV channels in Turkey and using of the internet was not separated like nowadays. Radios and magazines and newspapers were only media devices for this kind of movements. However, Gulen movement had a difference from other movements. They used cassette technologies to separate their ideas and they were the best user of tape technology in Turkey. They separate easily sermons of Fethullah Gülen. He was very important preacher for Muslim people and for their supporter. Their supporters and other people could hear his voices, they could listen his ideas and they could feel his feelings thanks to this tape technology. This was very important way to find supporter and it had very big affect on people and their minds. Also, Muslim brothers use this technology in Egypt against to dictator and then against to coup government.

 

Nowadays, communication technologies and devices are more developed. That’s why using technologies change now and every group use these new technologies like visual technologies, internet and the most important feature of the internet; social media. Many different groups use social networking sites to share their ideas and to increase the number of their supporters. Gulen movement also uses these same ways. They can adapt themselves according to today’s condition. Now, they have many internet sites and they have can do publications. Also they have different publications in different countries with different languages. In this way, they can have international supports in the worldwide. In many different countries, universities prepare Gulen movement symposiums and seminars thanks to media using.

Media institutions of Gulen movement

Gulen movement has lots of media institutions nowadays. They have internet sites, TV channels, radios, magazines and newspapers in different areas. Television channels of movement are Samanyolu TV, STV Avrupa (STV Europe), STV Amerika (STV US), S Haber (S News), Mehtap TV, Ebru TV, Yumurcak TV, Küre TV, Hazar TV and Dünya TV. Newspapers of movement are Zaman and Today’s Zaman. Radio channels of movement are Burç FM, Samanyolu Haber, Radyo Cihan and Radyo Risale. The magazines of movement are Aksiyon, Sızıntı, Yeni Ümit, Yeni Bahar, Yağmur and Gonca. The internet sites of movement are herkul.org and f.gulen.com. Movement also has a news agency and its name is Cihan Haber Ajansı (CHA).

 

TV channels

         Samanyolu TV (STV) was founded in 1993. Its content is mostly cultural and Islamic topics. Samanyolu Broadcast group has eight TV channels and three radio Channels in totally. TV channels are; Mehtap TV generally broadcast on cultural and religious topics. Samanyolu Haber TV broadcast usually on reporting and documentary topics. Ebru TV always broadcast with English language to introduce Islamic culture and and civilization for stranger people on international area in the worldwide. The content of Yumurcak TV is generaly for the kids and to teach them Islamic ethics. In addition to these, Samanyolu TV, Samanyolu Avrupa TV and Samanyolu US have a general content about general topics from Turkey and the area where they broadcast. Hazar TV broadcast in Azerbaijan and its content is generally family programs and religious programs. Dünya TV broadcast with Kurdish language to take support from Kurdish people.

 

Newspapers

Zaman daily newspaper is famous and biggest media organization in Turkey. It was founded in 1986. According to results of research of GENAR Research Company, Zaman newspaper was selected as most reliable newspaper in Turkey in 2009. Also, according to results of research of Konsensus Research Company, Zaman was selected as most unbiased newspaper in 2011 in Turkey. Moreover, Zaman is most printed newspaper in Turkey and its daily circulation is between 950.000 to 1.000.000. Zaman is published in 35 different countries, in 10 different languages with 2 different alphabets and it is printed in 10 different countries. Zaman also won many different awards about the topic of visual and design of newspaper. As well as it is the first newspaper which has internet site in Turkey (www.zaman.com.tr). That’s why it is the first Turkish newspaper on the internet. The contents of newspaper are economy, foreign news, television, culture and art, family-health, reviews and sports. Sometimes, they translate some important comments from foreign newspapers and magazines in their reviews pages.

 

Zaman newspaper has a daily English version; Today’s Zaman in Turkey. Today’s Zaman was published first time in 2007. It has cooperation with The Washington Post about content. Today’s Zaman is managed from same center with Zaman and it has its own personnel. It is also very big establishment in Turkey. Every Sunday, newspaper is published with the name of Sunday’s Zaman.

 

Radio Channels

Before the TV and internet, radio was biggest media device to propaganda for different groups and social movements. It could give information fast and easily. Gulen movement also uses this technology. Burç FM is the most famous radio channel of Gulen movement. Radio also has broadcast in North Africa, Middle East and Middle Asia thanks to satellite technologies in order to find support from different area for their movement. Samanyolu Haber Radyo has common broadcast with Samanyolu Haber TV. It was founded in 2007 in Istanbul. It has voluntary reporters and thanks to internet broadcast it has lots of audiences.

 

Another radio channel of Gulen movement is Radyo Cihan. It is one of Turkey’s first private radio channels. It was founded in 1993 in Istanbul and it was known by the name of Marmara FM. In 2011, it was sold Feza Gazetecilik and after this date Radyo Cihan is the biggest radio channel of Gulen movement. Their slogan is “Bu sesi herkes duymalı” (Everyone should hear this voice). The main feature of all this radio channels is that. You can hear the voice of Fethullah Gülen or the name of Gülen. Also all of these radio channels have a common purpose. This purpose is finding support for their movement and telling their main ideology for people.

Magazines

Sızıntı is the first magazine of the Gulen movement and it was published in 1979. It was also first written press media device of movement. It is published monthly and its content is about literature and popular science. Monthly circulation of Sızıntı is in the near of 850.000 average. Religious topics are broadcasted generally in this magazine. The real meaning of the universe and the biological properties of human are general and main topics in this magazine. Also, the news about Fethullah Gülen and movement are broadcasted in magazine. Moreover according to some news Gülen wrote editorial of Sızıntı in February 2008.

 

The other famous magazine of Gulen movement is Aksiyon. Aksiyon is started to publish in 1994. It is a weekly news magazine and it came forward with journalism studies. It broadcasts every week new fifteen news file average. Its content is very wide and it almost broadcasts about every topic like politics, economy, culture and art, intelligence, foreign policy and social news. Aksiyon generally broadcasts news and comments together and this give an opportunity to analyze the news for people. It is only magazine in the area of weekly news in Turkey now. Its circulation is 56.000 averages in every week and it is very significant for a weekly magazine.

 

Yeni Bahar magazine was begun to publish in 2011. Its content is child, family, society, health, history and culture. it was a gift for subscribers of Zaman newspaper. Yeni Ümit is another magazine of Gulen movement. It was started to publish in 1988. It is published every three month. In its content, there are the topics about religious sciences and Islamic culture. It broadcasts about researches of Qur’an and it is published in 42 different countries. It has an important circulation. It is sold 98.000 averages in every three months. Its circulation is very big also in Middle East thanks to its contents.

 

Another magazine of Gulen movement is Yağmur. It was published first time in 1998 and it is published every two months. The content of magazine is language, culture and literature topics. Also, movement has another monthly magazine. Its name is Gonca. It is published in Izmir. The content of magazine is child and family and culture. It has small stories, jokes and riddles for children.

Internet sites

Gulen movement has two important internet sites. fgulen.com is the official internet site of Fethullah Gülen. He answers the questions of follower in this site. The site has very big mass follower. Another important internet side of movement is herkul.org. In this site shares the videos of conservation of Gülen weekly. These conversations are generally about cultural, political, religious and scientific topics. This site is actually an online magazine. It broadcasts the parts of the books of Gülen. These parts are generally about the agenda of Turkey and about the problems of other Muslim societies. That’s why it has many followers from overseas.

 

News agency

Gulen movement also has a news agency. Its name is Cihan Haber Ajansı (CHA). It was founded in 1994 in Istanbul. It has broadcasting twenty-four hours everyday on satellite and internet. According to their own information, they broadcast 450 writing news, 400 photographs, 180 news photos and 85 video news. They make news about politics, economy, sport, foreign news and art. They give these news for national television channels in Turkey and for the half of national newspapers in Turkey. Also they provide news for private companies. They have Arabic broadcasting since 1997. They have their bureaus in 31 different countries and they have their own reporters in 55 different countries.

 

Sources

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gülen_movement

http://tr.fgulen.com

http://www.herkul.org

http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samanyolu_TV

http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gülen_hareketi

http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaman_(gazete)

http://ik.zaman.com.tr/ik/mainAction.action

http://www.todayszaman.com/about-us

http://www.aksiyon.com.tr/aksiyon/mainAction.action

http://www.sizinti.com.tr/hakkimizda

Zapatista Movement

1 January  1994 known as the Zapatistas , Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN ) in Chiapas province of Mexico in the city of San Cristobal de las Casas has created a riot .  1 January  1994 this day as the beginning of the revolt was selected following the North American Trade Agreement (NAFTA ) entered into force on the day comes from that . Slogans was: Ya basta ! ( “Enough is enough ! “). The Zapatistas from the beginning, injustice and humiliation of five hundred years against the outputs and the autonomy of requests , neo -liberalism and NAFTA part and symbol that against imperialism worldwide current struggle ties say that .

We have to keep in mind the following Chiapas, Mexico’s poorest regions and is probably the overwhelming majority of the population “native “, that is composed of people . The first Catholic bishop of Chiapas lives of indigenous peoples to defend their right to equal treatment one dedicated 16 century Dominican friar , was Bartolomé de Las Casas . 1994 Las Casas ‘s time to see what the locals were given this right .

In 2001, during the Mexican Zapatistas organized a peaceful march towards the capital . However, in the Mexican legislature , to enact the principles of reconciliation hoped to press . Walking was enormous , but still stayed council against it . In 2005, the Zapatista’s ” Other Campaign ” launched . Objectives in other states with less near -bearing group aims to launch an alliance between Zapatistas these efforts , although still a tremendous did not change the current policy of the Mexican government .

Zapatistas in the 2006 elections , Felipe Calderón of the conservative likely to win against a tense electoral competition within the center-left presidential candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador has vehemently refused to support . This movement Zapatista sympathizers in Mexico López Obrador ‘s election to lose , and it caused a great rift between those who think that the rest of the world has caused . The roots of this attitude of the Zapatistas , the choice of policy is thought did not work . Zapatistas in Brazil, Lula , Chavez in Venezuela , Latin America’s middle left of the president approach to their oppressed majority on the floor of a fundamental change that can not , top-down movements argued that because they , is highly critical . Zapatistas spoke about the good government of Cuba is the only Latin American governments in the true sense because the only government they are considered to be anti-capitalist . A little on the world stage farklı.1994 table of Zapatista rebellion movements against the world system , no doubt a great source of inspiration . For this, the World Trade Organization (WTO ) meeting, which cause irreparable suffered a rout of the Seattle protests in 1999 paved the way is sure to be a turning point . WTO impasse today in the northern half of the south you are moribund state of the Zapatistas in that if you need to deliver the right . The aim from the very beginning , the Zapatistas and their concerns and wanted to support active worldwide . They’re pretty good about that . Some succumbed to the worldwide support falling down, the lateness , December 2007 conference to revive the alliance has a clear effort .

What is fundamentally wrong in today’s world and that of the capitalist world itself insisted on changing what they emphasize that requires a real struggle . It is of course not the first proponents of the Zapatistas . These are their opinions and fight the problems of urban industrial proletariat think they kept limited to the Old Left ‘s traditional analysis finds more narrow opinion is a part of the post-1968 .

Impact of the Media in Revolution

One small fire engulfed the entire Middle East and North African countries . After the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia , very few people , in such a short time and in a great country like Egypt, rooted in power for 30 years, Hosni Mubarak would have guessed that they would have to leave his seat . In the same days, Jordan, Yemen, Morocco, Bahrain , Iraq, Libya and other countries in the region that erupted in riots, the world is sitting on the top of his agenda . This revolution speed of the process of political, economic, international and systemic cause-effect already the most discussed issues of the agenda is set. However, the same process to do something very important to analyze the size of the media influence and contribution in this process . At Al-Jazeera and social media , including the revolutions in the Middle East and North Africa experienced in the process of analyzing the impact of the media to understand and impossible to make sense .

Middle East and North African revolution if analyzed the impact of the media on al-Jazeera should be considered together, the second address social media. Social media that has become the trend of recent years, more independent and varied, more flexible and open to differences in the field of communication has opened a can be personalized. Many of us first that comes to mind is Facebook and Twitter, essentially only a part of social media, many of them outside the field of communication is available. This field computer or mobile device that is suitable for everyone to use and no one wants without direct control of the area can establish a communication with people has become a medium. In a matter of a few hours a group of people who are sensitive communicates with Facebook, Twitter share can fill the largest square in the city the next morning. Al-Jazeera after the uprisings in the region, therefore the major elements that have influence on social media networks.

Starting from Tunisia , Egypt and some other countries , especially the things we see , the regime was shut down access to the internet before swinging leaders . Thus, young people would not be so easy to organize . Internet and mobile communications in the period in which it is so easy for the realization of the popular uprising like today was more difficult in any case . At least 15-20 years in power in the Middle East displeasure with satellite leader , there were maybe 10 years ago in the Arab peoples . But it is precisely the emergence of channels like Al-Jazeera and social media with the multiplier effect of this revolt has become possible today . For example, inspired by Tunisia and psychological support area of Egyptians filled Tahrir Square , Tahrir Square and psychological support area inspired by other Arab societies descended to occur . This is uncontrollable ” exceed the threshold ” process . Middle East and North African societies had been rescued after the period of colonialism , most of them originated in the military so excited the first time against the leaders and their inner colonies no longer intend to clean .

Many people on the turning point in the history of the world , fed by conspiracy theories tend to think in a way . ” Big Brother” I see everything directed by the perception of a world system , in explaining the reason for social transformation as one of the most widely used method emerges . However, this method though is another name for the easy , though . Today’s Middle East and North Africa in transition, of course, has the effect of major powers . However, everything on this basis to explain the current uprisings in the Arab societies disrespect , as well as unsustainable in the Middle East in order to occur would be playing dumb . Yes, indeed the Camp David order in the Middle East and the situation became unsustainable society, primarily through al-Jazeera saw in his mirror . Hosni Mubarak, in power for 30 years, along with the U.S. and Israel as a partner of the Camp David order before anyone else did not offend the people of Egypt ? But society rebelled against the regime in order to govern themselves oppression they see the back wall climbing were required to demonstrate courage . Here’s what happened the last 10 years in the region , beginning with the invasion of Iraq and the ongoing process of Turkey in Davos , Arab societies , it does not exceed the wall will have the courage came to the edge of the psychological threshold . Accumulated over the years of the economic and social problems , corruption and repressive regimes already pointed out to the point of a social explosion . Then one day a young 26 -year-old has set himself on fire in the minds of the media and its ” revolution” occurred at a time overflowed . Today, the changes in the Middle East and North Africa behind the process a ” media revolution ” there. The impact of this revolution continued as long as the process of change will continue in the region .