Student Movements

<div style=”margin-bottom:5px”> <strong> <a href=”; title=”Student movements” target=”_blank”>Student movements</a> </strong> from <strong><a href=”; target=”_blank”>Sedat Oymak</a></strong> </div>


The Euromaidan – Final Project

The EuroMaidan

On the night of 21 November 2013 with very large public protests demanding closer European integration have begun in Ukraine named as Euromaidan which is a wave of ongoing which is a demonstration and civil unrest. By 25 January 2014 the protests had been fueled by the perception of widespread, government corruption abuse of power, and violation of human rights in Ukraine.  It is been almost ten weeks since protests started, and it looks like they will go on. Thousands of Ukranians have gone to Kyiv’s Maidan Nezalezhnosti, also thousands protestors around the world are supporting them. Barricades were built by protestors with bags of snow and anything they could find.



An Association Agreement was initialed between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine On 30 March 2012. however, the EU leaders later stated that the agreement would not be ratified unless Ukraine addressed concerns over a “stark deterioration of democracy and the rule of law”, including the imprisonment of Yulia Tymoshenko and Yuriy Lutsenko in 2011 and 2012. Mid-August 2013 Russia changed its customs regulations on imports from Ukraine. On 21 November 2013 a Ukrainian government decree suspended preparations for signing of the association agreement. The reason given was that the previous months Ukraine had experienced “a drop in industrial production and our relations with The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries”   Comparision with Orange Revolution On 21th of November 2013 Ukrainians called to come to Maidan Nezalezhnosti to protest Yanukovych terminating trade agreement negotiations with the European Union by Ukrainian journalist Mustafa Nayeem with a Facebook post.



Nayem said that “Lets be serious, are u ready to be at Maidan this midnight, just write i will be there to this post, thousands will be organized at there. At this poind timing is important because Orange Revolution had started on 22 November 2004. Kaley Hanenkrat indicates that EuroMaidan and the Orange Revolution both had catalyzing events that brought people to the streets, an abandoned trade agreement and a falsified election, respectively, but both were and are indicative of deeper frustrations of Ukrainian citizens, many that are the same even nine years later. The Financial Times said the 2013 protests were “largely spontaneous, sparked by social media, and have caught Ukraine’s political opposition unprepared” compared to their well-organized predecessors.In an interview with opposition leader Yuriy Lutsenko, when asked if the current opposition was weaker than it was in 2004 he argued, that it was stronger because the stakes were higher, “I asked each [of the opposition leaders]: “Do you realize that this is not a protest? It is a revolution […] we have two roads – we go to prison or we win” Paul Robert Magocsi illustrated the effect of the Orange Revolution on Euromaidan, saying “Was the Orange Revolution a genuine revolution? Yes it was. And we see the effects today. The revolution wasn’t a revolution of the streets or a revolution of (political) elections, it was a revolution of the minds of people, in the sense that for the first time in a long time, Ukrainians, and people living in territorial Ukraine saw the opportunity to protest and change their situation. This was a profound change in the character of the population of the former Soviet Union.”Lviv-based historian Yaroslav Hrytsak also remarked on the generational shift, “This is a revolution of the generation that we call the contemporaries of Ukraine’s independence (who were born around the time of 1991); it is more similar to the Occupy Wall Street protests or those in Istanbul demonstrations (of this year). It’s a revolution of young people who are very educated, people who are active in social media, who are mobile and 90 percent of whom have university degrees, but who don’t have futures.”According to Hrytsak: “Young Ukrainians resemble young Italians, Czech, Poles, or Germans more than they resemble Ukrainians who are 50 and older. This generation has a stronger desire for European integration and fewer regional divides than their seniors”.In a Kyiv International Institute of Sociology poll taken in September, joining the European Union was mostly supported by young Ukrainians (49.8% of those aged 18 to 29), higher than the national average of 43.2% support.[A November 2013 poll by the same institute found the same result with 50.8% aged 18 to 29 wanting to join the European Union while 39.7% was the national average of support.An opinion poll by GfK conducted October 2–15 found that among respondents aged 16–29 with a position on integration, 73% favored signing an Association Agreement with the EU, while only 45% of those o ver the age of 45 favored Association. The lowest support for European integration was among people with incomplete secondary and higher education.




Goverment’s respond to protests is very aggresively, arrests have been occurred. Police forces uses pepper gas to protestors. Also you can see on photos.

Timeline of the protests across Ukraine

“A 24 November protest in Ivano-Frankivsk saw several thousand protestors gather at the regional administration building.No classes were held in the universities of western Ukrainian cities such as Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Uzhhorod. Protests also took place in other large Ukrainian cities: Kharkiv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Luhansk, Lviv, and Uzhhorod. The rally in Lviv in support of the integration of Ukraine into the EU was initiated by the students of local universities. This rally saw 25–30 thousand protesters gather on Prospect Svobody (Freedom Avenue) in Lviv. The organizers planned to continue this rally ’till the 3rd Eastern Partnership summit in Vilnius, Lithuania, on 28–29 November 2013. A rally in Simferopol, which drew around 300, saw nationalists and Crimean Tatars unite to support European integration; the protesters sang both the Ukrainian national anthem and the anthem of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen.

7 people were injured after 40 titushky (thugs) attacked a tent encampment in Dnipropetrovsk, which was ordered cleared by court order on 25 November.Officials estimated the number of attackers to be 10-15, and police did not intervene in the attacks. Similarly, police in Odessa ignored calls to stop the demolition of Euromaidan camps in the city by a group of 30, and instead removed all parties from the premises.50 police officers and men in plain clothes also drove out a Euromaidan protest in Chernihiv the same day.

On 25 November, in Odessa, 120 police raided and destroyed a tent encampment made by protesters at 5:20 in the morning. The police detained three of the protesters, including the leader of the Odessa branch of Democratic Alliance, Alexei Chorny. All three were beaten in the police vehicle and then taken to the Portofrankovsk Police Station without their arrival being recorded. The move came after the District Administrative Court hours earlier issued a ban restricting citizens’ right to peaceful assembly until New Year. The court ruling places a blanket ban on all demonstrations, the use of tents, sound equipment and vehicles until the end of the year.

On 26 November, a rally of 50 was held in Donetsk.

On 28 November, a rally was held in Yalta; university faculty who attended were pressured to resign by university officials.

On 29 November, Lviv protesters numbered some 20,000. Like in Kiev, they locked hands in a human chain, symbolically linking Ukraine to the European Union (organisers claimed that some 100 people even crossed the Ukrainian-Polish border to extend the chain to the European Union).

On 1 December, the largest rally outside of Kiev took place in Lviv by the statue of Taras Shevchenko, where over 50,t public figures and politicians were in attendance.An estimated 300 rallied in the eastern city of Donetsk d000 protesters attended. Mayor Andriy Sadovy, council chairman Peter Kolody, and prominenemanding that President Viktor Yanukovych and the government of Prime Minister Mykola Azarov resign.Meanwhile, in Kharkiv, thousands rallied with writer Serhiy Zhadan, during a speech, calling for revolution. The protest was peaceful.Protesters claimed at least 4,000 attended, with other sources saying 2,000. In Dnipropetrovsk, 1,000 gathered to protest the EU agreement suspension, show solidarity with those in Kiev, and demand the resignation of local and metropolitan officials. They later marched, shouting “Ukraine is Europe” and “Revolution”. EuroMaidan protests were also held in Simferopol (where 150-200 attended), and Odessa.

On 2 December, in an act of solidarity, Lviv Oblast declared a general strike in order to mobilize support for protests in Kiev,which was followed by the formal order of a general strike by the cities of Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk.

In Dnipropetrovsk on 3 December, a group of 300 protested in favor of European integration and demanded the resignation of local authorities, heads of local police units, and the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU).

On 7 December it was reported that police were prohibiting those from Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk from driving to Kiev.

Protests on 8 December saw record turnout in many Ukrainian cities, including several in eastern Ukraine.

On 9 December, a statue to Vladimir Lenin was destroyed in in the town of Kotovsk in Odessa Oblast.In Ternopil, Euromaidan organizers were prosecuted by authorities.

On 14 December, Euromaidan supporters in Kharkiv voiced their disapproval of authorities fencing off Freedom Square from the public by covering the metal fence in placards.They have since 5 December been the victims of theft and arson.A Euromaidan activist in Kharkiv was attacked by two men and stabbed twelve times. The assailants were unknown but activists told the Kharkiv-based civic organization Maidan that they believe the city’s mayor, Gennady Kernes, to be behind the attack.

On 22 December, 2,000 rallied in Dnipropetrovsk.

In late December, 500 marched in Donetsk. Due to the regime’s hegemony in the city, ‘500 marchers to assemble in Donetsk is the equivalent of 50,000 in Lviv or 500,000 in Kiev. On 5 January, marches in support of Euromaidan were held in Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, and Kharkiv; the latter three drawing several hundred and Donetsk only 100.

On 11 January, 150 activists met in Kharkiv for a general forum on uniting the nation-wide Euromaidan efforts. A church were some were meeting was stormed by over a dozenthugs, and others attacked meetings in a book store; smashing windows and deploying tear gas to stop the Maidan meetings from taking place.

On 22 January in Donetsk, two simultaneous rallies were held – one pro-Euromaidan and one pro-government. The pro-government rally attracted 600 attendees to about 100 from the Euromaidan side. Police reports claimed 5,000 attended to support the government, to only 60 from Euromaidan. In addition, approximately 150 titushky appeared and encircled the Euromaidan protesters with megaphones and began a conflict, burning wreaths and Svoboda Party flags, and shouted “down with fascists!”, but were separated by police.Meanwhile, Donetsk City Council pleaded with the government to take tougher measures against Euromaidan protesters in Kiev.Reports indicated a media blackout took place in Donetsk.

In Lviv on 22 January, amid the police shootings of protesters in the capital, military barracks were surrounded by protesters. Many of the protesters included mothers whose sons are serving in the military, and pleaded with them not to deploy to Kiev.

In Vinnytsia on 22 January thousands protesters blocked the main street of the city and the traffic. Also, they brought “democracy in coffin” to the city hall, as a present to Yanukovych.23 January Odessa city council member and Euromaidan activist Oleksandr Ostapenko’s car was bombed. The Mayor of Sumy threw his support behind the Euromaidan movement on 24 January, laying blame for the civil disorder in Kiev on the Party of Regions and Communists.

On 28 January about 500 Crimean Tatars attended a peaceful rally in support of Euromaidan in Simferopol.”


The EuroMaidan is an ongoing protests so it is early to conclude Euromaidan. Protests are still continuing.


An Overview Of The Arap Spring

That revolution started on 18 December 2010 and it includes all Arab countries. This uprising began in Tunisia and then it spread to another Arap countries. Those are countries: Egypt, Yemen, Libya, Bahrain, Syria, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Sudan, Mauritania, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, Western Sahara and in the Palestinian Authority.



What does mean Arap Spring?

The Arab Spring is a term that refers to the revolutionary wave of protests that have spread through many North African and Middle Eastern countries. (The Arap awakening: Revolution spinning in the wind,Jul 14th 2011 | Cairo | From the print edition)

There were lots of motivations for this uprasing. Such as unemployment, government control, censorship and there was no freedom of speech. The dictators of all Arab countries were unique power. They were regulating and controlling their countires strictly.


What was the role of technology for Arab Spring?

Even the control of the goverments was strictly, and people couldn’t express themselves freely, the use of social media was effectively. Twitter, Facebook and Blogs were using a lot by protesters and activits. During the Arab Spring and before the uprising people were using the social media to organize, to meet and to communicate with each other. People defended their personal rights against to the government. That’s why the social media and the role of the technology were very important.


Arab Spring Wikipedia:

The Arab Awakening:



Anti war movements (FİNAL PROJECT)

Being able to stop standing in the way of existing in the world, being able to remain strong through the victories of the war.This situation had contunied since centuries. As most of people had adopted this idea with the word “war” some people also was against this. People who want to take their land,borders, weak people, strong people, people want their freedom always tried to achieve this wih wars.

Activisims against wars is a social event. It started within the same decisions öf society against carrying guns. Activists work together with society and for protests in order to stop this chaos and war which is also against the governments.

Some examples for the protests against war are listed below

Protests in the USA against them war in Iraq,  the activists act to protect the rights of the civilians and children who has no guilt in the events happening in the Iraq. One other issue that activist stand for the damage of the guns using in the war and Burning oil Wells to the nature

The antiwar movement includes a wide circle besides peace movements like not being dependent on a central guidance. This mass circle showed a different acts like aggregate protests to sitting protests, people shield to hacts of computer Monsters, concerts to signature gathering,  Greenpeace acts to conscientious objection to Oscar protests, hanging posters on individual houses to people wearing pins on the streets .This antiwar movement had made a purpose to create collective conscience against people murdered in Iraq,emphasize them and create a world view on humanity.

People among different geography, region, religion, culture and society tried to Relax with their conscience by telling the things they are not happy with.  Rome with 2 million, Madrid with 2 million,  London with 1,5 million,  Newyork with 500 thousand, Berlin with 500 thousand,  Sydney again 500 thousand Paris 250thousand had joined this act and on the 15 February 2003, Saturday they created a big event among 70 country, 300 city,  about 10 million people. (Akınay,  2003:98)

Even if antiwarism is not been well cared,  a survey conducted in 2010 showed that, antiwar believes are more than war believers.

Vietnam war

An example to this can be showed as an actual against Vietnam war acts. Anti Vietnam War acts start in 1964. Before this date, there are some little groups consists of A few peace groups. The aim of these acts are to show there is an similar organization against Vietnam war. With this reason, it is seen that different groups gather in one idea.  This is just seen in the 60’s peace movements. Sometimes there can be conflict between different peace groups either. Antiwar groups are all have different purposes and methods. Capitalist and revolutionist groups are trying to demolish capitalism however women rights groups defend woman rights and freedom, but even if they all have different purposes they all come together with the idea of antiwar.

    If you are in the government begins to spread opposition to war in 1968. The most important anti-war movement is opposition within the army. Thousands of U.S. soldiers will refuse to obey orders. Hundreds of officers of the United States were killed by their own soldiers. In 1960,the civil rights movement in America anti-war movement across the country would be a great public support. From the public following the bloody conflicts of the American people begin to protest their country. Everywhere in the country at slaughter were shown on television in a detailed manner.

Containing all of the political, racial, and cultural issues of the 1960s anti-war movement will cause huge divisions in society.

Vietnam war movement against the university campuses of the middle-class slums of labor unions, government agencies, civil rights movement supporters, feminists, conscientious objectors, vietnam veterans, their religious pacifists, democrats, republicans and the clergy are so many different walks of individuals and groups have provided extensive support .

As an example of these countries define themselves as hawks and doves, two groups were formed. Hawks defending thepresidentss policies were cut. Pigeons Americans were opposed to the war. The war between the government of South Vietnam and the Vietcong in the American civil war is a need not to be mixtures were supported.Pigeons intense aerial bombardments, American troops killing civilians and chemical gas against the use of them.1960’s and 70s in the anti-war movement on a survey conducted in the men hawk support there women is higher than was observed.After the Tet offensive in January 1968, 56 percent of the American people for Atmaci, 28 percent supported the pigeons pigeons after this event has increased the proportion of support. In addition, the power of religion or religious belief of hawk or dove, but support has emerged that there is no effect. On the other hand, most of the provinces in the south of the war in American growth, whether it be of support was roaring.(Hodgson, 336)

During the war is a wide variety of tactics used by opponents of the war. Legal shown, base, organizing, lobbying in Congress, support candidates in elections pro-peace, civil disobedience, to go to the army, conscientious, self-burning, not to tax them as examples

These actions are the most popular to tax decentralization. In 1966, the government obtained from telephone tax money allocated to explain how the war goes. Thereupon pacifists (peacemakers) want to be the payment of this tax. In 1966, war tax resistance (war-tax resistance) organization is established.

Join the movement against the Vietnam War, the U.S. is the most successful movements.

 One another war; south africa border war. This call for an end to the military campaign in the anti-war movement was performed. committee was formed and the South African War resisters. remaining in this war there were many anti-war people.2005 2006 during the American against Iran a possible military intervention can be found on was talked.war anti-activists, journalists and academics to the world as announced in america Iranian nuclear bomb to produce world threat as showing a possible battle ground was prepearing told.

these reports and escalation between Iran and western states,created citizens organization.In America and in England have organized campaigns for protecting military intervention against Iran


”Antimilitarism is the contrast of war in general and not specific wars. Whatever the reason or justification for the policy as a method of warfare negative. Justified or unjustified war than he refuses to categorize.This is not due to rejection class sexual cultural interests received moral and political reasons for Antimilitarism. However, conscientious rejection and the message also is a requirement of the anti-war actions. Freedom to question whether the security community Antimilitarism Does freedom of the individual as an individual responds to the question.”

Conscientious Rejection

Conscientious objection is a compulsory status that, political, religious or moral values ​​based on the persons refusal to do military service . . Conscientious objectors to military service because of their faith in all circumstances, but those objections are refusnik, while the military who do not fulfill orders that do not fit to their conscience. They can die for the defense of Israel, but they are going to military occupation.

One of the reasons for rejection, even if the enemy is to kill people find moral. the worlds first known conscientious objectors Maximilian there of 21 Years in North Africa when he was summoned to a young Roman army were executed for stubbornly refusing to go.

for the first time on 5 September 1798 with the start of conscription in France began to organize .1. Shortly after World War WRI (War Resisters’ International – Council of War Resisters’ International was founded after the second world war and the cold war era and forth rapidly.

In western Europe in past 10 years in many countries compulsory military was demolished.  .Belgium (1995), The Netherlands (1996), France (2002), Spain (2003), Hungary and the Czech Republic (2004), Italy (1 January 2005) in other countries alternative public services are implemented. In Russia the situation is somewhat different in Russia the number of deserters higher than the number of open conscientious objectors.

Mothers of soldiers who deserted compared to the estimated annual number of 40,000 finds. No unified refusal movement in Russia. Soldiers’ Mothers Movement – supporting refusers of the most powerful movements violations of human rights support to soldiers leaving their units and polling / focus on draft evasion. This support is often not an anti-militarist perspective, life safety and health of their sons related feeds on fear. However, the Soldiers’ Mothers movement in the war in Chechnya often strongly opposes.

Conscientious objection in Turkey, it is not recognized as a right in law and on conscientious objectors conscientious objectors to a special arrangement is made, all other military-age men with Turkish nationals are treated in the same way. Conscientious objection in Turkey, despite the decision taken after the penalty call and recruitment for military service due to the continuation of the order or refusal to renounce objectors are fulfilling his military service or civil disobedience have continued. Denial or who insist on living as fugitives or recruitment despite the tasks are thrown into prison for refusing military.

Although a member of the council of europe turkey conscientious objection is one of the rare countries that refuse to recognize as eligible. Despite explaining that conscientious objection in Turkey are 220 persons.


asker doğmayanlar (pınar öğünç)

( kavramlar sözlüğü 2 ,özgür üniversite yayınları)

C.Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi küresel yeni sosyal hareketler ve savaş karşıtlığı- Ünal şentürk

The Gender Revolution

Speaking about the opportunities and LGBT movements it is worth to mention a generation of gender. It even became one of the most popular slogan on the Internet (gender was elected Word of the Year 2013 competition conducted by scientists from the Institute of Polish Language).

Image of “gender” concepts relating to identity and gender roles in society. This subject is controversial as gay marriage and the fight for LGBT rights. Generally speaking, gender is the study of gender, only understood in terms of cultural, not biological. Gender is not the only culprit of social change. Gender is related to discriminatory situations. What is more it is difficult to separate from the concept of gender and feminism. It is normal that there are social movements or currents of thoughts which introduce changes in the perception of certain concepts in science. I think that is a natural consequence of the struggle for gender equality and the fight for the legalization of same-sex marriages.

I know some people media and politicians who claim that “gender” harms society because it is hitting into a traditional model of family. I encourage you to look at the issue from a historical perspective. This is how it looks today, the family is so different from how it looked in the sixteenth century, the seventeenth or even the nineteenth that present standards would be greatly scandalized. Changes are subject to a number of factors, not just gender theory and feminism. Blaming any study or discipline of gender for breaking habits is a misunderstanding. Then there are demographic, economic, ability to move, or very many cultural trends that have changed our behavior and habits.

Blaming the Church about gender study is a misunderstanding.

Currently in Poland it takes a huge struggle for “gender” in church. This is not about the concept of these studies. They exchanged a lot of threats and changes, which may lead the next generation. One polish bishop asked what is the Church’s problem about “gender” responds that this ideology comes from the wrong understanding of freedom. It is hard to be surprised that some do not like it when they hear that some roles, behaviors and even attributes that their society has created for men and women, suddenly begin to be called into question.

But history has shown that what was impossible a few decades ago, today it is widely accepted.

Kurdish nationalism & New media

The Kurdish Question represents a longstanding battle between the state’s authority and cultural identity group demands in Turkey. The Republic of Turkey was created as a territorial-based form of identity, based on the modern understanding of citizenship.  However, as a result of the collapse of the multiethnic and multireligious Ottoman Empire, the state has struggled to build a cohesive territory-based form of identity and citizenship.


European colonial powers attempted to divide Turkey, and to create an independent de facto Kurdish state in the Middle East. However, powerful cultural groups across the Middle East such as Arabs, Persian and the Turks, placed the Kurds in a powerless position, therefore the Kurds have no friends but mountains. 

Kurdish nationalism is the political movement that holds that the Kurdish people are a nation deserving of a sovereign homeland, Kurdistan, partitioned out of the territories where Kurdish people form a majority. Currently, these territories lie in northern Irak, Iran, Turkey and small parts of northern and northeastern Syria.

Kurdish nationalist movements have long been suppressed by Turkey, Iran and the Arab-majority states of Iraq and Syria, all of whom fear loss of territory to a potential, independent Kurdistan. Since the 1970s, Iraqi Kurds have pursued the goal of greater autonomy and even outright independence against the Baat Partyregimes, which responded with brutal repression. In the 1980s, After the invation of Irak in 2003, Iraqi Kurdistan became an autonomous region, enjoying a great measure of self-governance but stopping short of full independence.

‘New media technologies’ have facilitated and advanced Kurdish unification and nationalism and will continue to do so by reducing barriers such as time and space. The Internet has connected the Kurdish diaspora to the land and people still occupying the Kurdish territories. This argument is built on the idea that people can share their common sense of identity and feelings of attachment without governmental censorship.

Kurdish use Internet for ‘long-distance nationalism’, r for esearchers, e-mail and social networking sites, for organizing protests, meetings, and nationalist projects. Moreover, the Internet give the Kurds with a forum wherein they can discuss issues and subjects that are otherwise banned. This is particularly true of the Kurds from Turkey who use the Internet to disseminate banned publications and to make them available to the Kurds in Turkey. Facebook, for example, is popular for creating groups that discuss the Kurdish language, culture, and history. Twitter has also become a popular destination for expressing Kurdish nationalism. For example, Twitter was used to organize a campaign to highlight the oppression of Kurds in Turkey and to garner attention and support for the Kurds.